Saturday, August 31, 2019
The casino industry in Australia operates under an environment of uncertainty. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics AustraliaÃ¢â¬ s 13 casinos recorded a total operating loss of $288 million in 97-98. Outsiders predict a gloomy future for the casino industry in the next few years due to the reduction in international high rollers and the low level of management talent in AustraliaÃ¢â¬ s young casino industry. In this business environment Crown must implement business strategies will carry it into the next century as one of the worlds most successful casino complexes. The Crown was set up as a multimillion-dollar establishment in order to attract international gamblers especially the Asian junket gamblers. However with the economic meltdown of countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia Asian gamblers are fewer and have less money to gamble. The present focus of Crown casino towards the Asian market is fruitless as its competing in a highly saturated international market. International casinos have a much better operational efficiency compared to Crown due to the high levels of tax and intense monitoring experienced by Australian casinos. Nevertheless this excessive regulation reduces the perception of corruption which can be used to market Crown as a reputable operator in the world stage. Its current strategy of focusing on the Asian market is an inefficient management of resources. Crown should focus on the growing local market, which would stabilise the balancesheet, as the focus should be on maintaining a high volume of local gamblers as opposed to a small number of high rollers. The current volatile earning figures for Crown are caused due its reliance on Asian junket gamblers. In the current business environment buyer power is high as Crown focuses on few high volume gamblers this should be reduced, as it should concentrate on a higher numbers of smaller gamblers. The recent increases in the gambling to HDI ratio as a result of better domestic economic conditions should be exploited by Crown. In order to broaden its local market advertising campaigns to lure the suburban poker machine players towards the city and away from RSL clubs and bars should be undertaken. The recent acquisition of Crown by the media giant PBL should ensure that Crown promotions reach a wider audience through the magazine/television business with little cost. The main issue for Crown in the future is to maintain a consistent rate of turn over in slot machines and tables. This should be achieved not only through advertising moreover by offering patrons the latest technologies and gaming programs. Once the parton numbers are increased loyalty schemes targeting the lower end of the gaming market should be under taken to maintain the flow of customers. Crown should better take advantage of it regional monopoly and reputation for offering Ã¢â¬Ë world of entertainmentÃ¢â¬ by hiring top rating international performers. This would not only boost revenue to the Crown entertainment complex but to the casino as well. Online gambling is luring more and more customers away from physical casinos. This new frontier of gaming is thriving due to its ease of access to customers and many online operators are benefiting from the lack of regulatory and tax burdens. This industry is expected to grow from $US5 billion to $US25.4 billion by next year. In Crown Ã¢â¬Ës strategic outlook it should attempt to tap into this booming market. Crown would be able to use its globally recognised name and add credibility to this undisciplined market. With the cooperation of PBL namely ECORP its Internet Company Crown would be able to offer unrivalled Internet gambling services which are regulated by the Australian government. At present US based enterprises are unable to provide Internet gaming which would provide Crown with an opportune time to enter into this market and gain a foothold. (an operational efficiency.) The capacity exists for Crown to from strategic alliances with other off shore gambling facilities overseas in the hope of attracting more international gamblers. Such a venture could offer joint accommodation deals more lucrative jackpots and discounts to valued customers in reciprocal venues. This should compensate for MelbourneÃ¢â¬ s low level of International tourism. In addition relationships should be built up between Crown and the Victorian Tourism board to induce tourism into Melbourne. Michel Porter suggested that the Ã¢â¬Ëessence of strategy is choosing to perform activities differently than rivals doÃ¢â¬ in the current competitive environment Crown is able to do this by offering a complete package of entertainment and gaming which is unparalleled in Australia.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Vehicular webs are going as a milepost of the coming coevals the Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITSs ) , affecting a safer and more efficient transit by giving whole information on clip to drivers and several governments. By and large the moving vehicles are able to pass on with another vehicle through the vehicle to vehicle communicating or to the route side unit via vehicle to route side communicating. Particularly the Location of vehicle must be hint on its individuality on web [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Besides the traveling vehicle has its ain individuality depending on the other vehicle. The vehicles are ever anon. in the web. A big field of petition in web relies on association and information collection amongst take parting vehicles. Exclusive of individualities of participants, such applications are susceptible to the Sybil assault where a malevolent vehicle mask as legion individualities [ 3 ] , overwhelmingly act uponing the consequence. The effect of Sybil onslaught happening in vehicular web can be important. For case, in protection related contraption such as danger warning, smash turning away, and fliting aid, partial consequences caused by a Sybil onslaught can demo the manner to strict auto bad luck. Therefore, it is of great significance to feel Sybil onslaughts from the highly get downing of their happening. Detecting aggressor node in urban vehicular webs, however, is really demanding. Primary, vehicles are cryptic. There are no handcuffs of trust associating claimed individualities to reliable vehicles. Second, location privateness of vehicles is of great apprehensiveness. Locality information of vehicle can be really private. For case, it can be contingent that the rider of a vehicle may be under the conditions from cognizing the vehicle is parking following to a infirmary. It is inhibitive to do obligatory a conversation association among claimed individuality to genuine vehicles by formalizing the physical endurance of a vehicle at a proving place and clip. Third, conversations among vehicles are really bantam. Due to elevated mobility of vehicles, a running vehicle can hold merely more than a few seconds [ 4 ] to pass on with another periodically encountered vehicle. It is hard to establish certain dependability among pass oning vehicles in such a bantam clip. This makes it effortless for a malevolent vehicle to bring forth an aggressive individuality but really hard for others to legalise. Additionally, small treatment amongst vehicles calls for online Sybil assault exposure. The find proposal fails if a Sybil onslaught is identified after the onslaught has accomplished. To extinguish the bullying of Sybil onslaughts, it is undemanding to obviously adhere a dissimilar authorised individuality [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 8 ] to every vehicle so that all lending vehicle can match to itself merely one time during all communications. Using unambiguous individualities of vehicles has the likely to wholly avoid Sybil onslaughts but v iolates the enigma concern in urban vehicular webs. 1.1 Introduction of vehicular Network: The aim of ambient intelligence is to make an intelligent day-to-day infinite, which is instantly useable and integrated into our places, our offices, our roads, our autos, and everyplace. This new construct must be unseeable ; it must intermix in with our normal environment and must be present when we need it. One of the applications of this construct consists of supplying our autos and roads with capablenesss to do the route more secure ( information about the traffic, accidents, dangers, possible roundabout way, conditions, etc. ) and to do our clip on the route more gratifying ( Internet entree, web games, assisting two people follow each other on the route, chat, etc. ) . These applications are typical illustrations of what we call an Intelligent Transportation System ( ITS ) whose end is to better security, efficiency and enjoyment in route conveyance through the usage of new engineerings for information and communicating ( NTIC ) . Traditional traffic direction systems are bas ed on centralised substructures where cameras and detectors implemented along the route cod information on denseness and traffic province and transmit this information to a cardinal unit to treat it and do appropriate determinations. This type of system is really dearly-won in footings of deployment and is characterized by a long reaction clip for processing and information transportation in a context where information transmittal hold is critical and is highly of import in this type of system. In add-on, these devices placed on roads require periodic and expensive care. Consequently, for big scale deployment of this type of system, of import investing is required in the communicating and detector substructure. However, with the rapid development of wireless communicating engineerings, location and detectors, a new decentralized ( or semi-centralized ) architecture based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications ( V2V ) has created a really existent involvement these last few old ages fo r auto makers, R & A ; D community and telecom operators. This type of architecture relies on a distributed and independent system and is made up of the vehicles themselves without the support of a fixed substructure for informations routing. In this instance, we are speaking about a vehicular ad hoc web ( VANET ) , which is no more than a specific application of traditional nomadic ad hoc webs ( MANET ) . An illustration of an urban VANET web is illustrated in Following Figure. Fig 1.1. Example of VANET web An application sphere where those visions can go world in the close hereafter is wireless communicating in vehicular traffic webs in order to better traffic safety and to increase traffic efficiency, vehicle-to-X communicating ( V2X ) webs. The notations car-to-X communicating ( C 2X ) and vehicular ad- hoc webs ( VANE Ts ) are synonymously used. The Ã¢â¬Å"XÃ¢â¬ emphasizes that either entirely vehicles communicate ( vehicle-to-vehicle communicating ( V2V ) ) , or so do vehicles and substructure points ( vehicle-to-infrastructure communicating ( V2I ) ) . For both types of communicating similar engineerings may be used, and webs uniting both are expected. In this thesis we concentrate on direct V2V communicating. It is envisioned that by interchanging information straight between vehicles every vehicle should be able to observe vehicles in the surrounding and may cipher the current traffic state of affairs from collected information. Such co-operative autos warn their drivers if n ecessary, e.g. in instance of at hand dangers like possible hits with other vehicles or looking obstructions on the route, e.g. route works. The communicating hence has to carry through highest quality demands as precise information has to be transmitted with high dependability and short hold under inauspicious and extremely dynamic environmental conditions. A cardinal edifice block of V2V communicating is the periodic transmittal of position information by every single vehicle. These messages that are frequently called beacon messages contain information like current place, velocity, acceleration and way of driving. The messages serve as the information footing for the common consciousness of the vehicles. For vehicles in the close surrounding of a several sender, the response of beacon messages is of peculiar importance in order to obtain accurate consciousness of the stopping point environing. Beacon messages have specific and unusual communicating belongingss that have to be considered. First, beacon messages are transmitted by every equipt vehicle. Second, beacon messages that contain up-to-date information are transmitted in a periodic man- ner, i.e. several times per second. Third, the messages are transmitted in a broad- dramatis personae mode and do non hold one specific receiver. In effect, an effectual strategy to admit a succ essful message response is non easy applicable. Therefore, specific methods are necessary to look into this type of communicating that we call local broadcasts communicating. With regard to the mentioned belongingss it has to be identified how timely and dependable periodic beacon messages can be distributed in the local surrounding of each vehicle. A cardinal and precise cognition of the systems in usage, their behaviour and their public presentation is necessary to measure V2V communicating and to plan systems that work dependable under mundane conditions. Therefore, the end of this thesis is a comprehensive and precise public presentation rating of periodic local broadcast communicating in V2V communicating webs. Of peculiar involvement is the scalability of immense and heavy webs. It turns out that the concealed terminus job is peculiarly relevant as it causes interventions during the response of messages. We discuss the analysis of effects of mu- tual intervention on the public presentation of V2V webs and accordingly on their possible. Therefore, such webs are analyzed with a focal point on the possibilities and restrictions that the communicating m echanisms and the physical features provide for the particular type of informations traffic that is exchanged. Several undertakings worldwide have investigated the betterment of transit systems with regard to the positive consequence on traffic safety and traffic efficiency. In recent old ages, the specific function of V2X communicating came into focal point and broadened the research sphere to the interaction of vehicles and substructure. Be- bow, these spheres were frequently treated individually: while from infrastructure side adaptable traffic telematics applications were introduced ( e.g. variable message marks for velocity and figure of parking tonss, or adaptative traffic visible radiations for traffic flow optimisation ) , on the vehicle side, electronic systems were introduced to im- prove rider safety, the controllability of the vehicle in critical state of affairss, or pilotage systems. The possibility to interact via wireless communicating be- tween substructure and vehicles, every bit good as straight between vehicles, allows to develop wholly new application scenarios where coop eration of the different entities may be achieved. We now foremost present undertakings where such possible applications were discussed, before deducing the communicating challenges and so looking at the proficient systems that should supply the necessary communicating demands. A nomadic ad hoc web ( MANET ) is an independent system made up of nomadic Stationss interrelated by wireless associations devoid of the direction of a centralised substructure. Following gettable communications in the web, the nomadic Stationss ( or nodes ) can say besides the map of router to convey informations. In this chapter, we focus on the survey of the chief component in ITS systems which are inter vehicle communicating ( IVC ) and its correlative services. For route security services, the information on possible danger can be exchange in existent minute between vehicles to advise the drivers. Examples of services are non imperfect to route security applications but subsist for other types of map as good, peculiarly console applications ( portable Internet entree, set of autos, games, etc. ) offering interesting point of view for telecom operators looking for original service niches. Road security has been an of import anxiousness in the universe over the past few old ages w hile 1000000s of public dice every twelvemonth since of auto bad luck and many more are offended. gettable figures show that route dealing accidents in the Member States of the European Union per annum maintain about 39000 lives and escape more than 1.7 million people affronted, stand foring an predictable cost of 160 billion euros programmed public route systems and intelligent transit systems ( ITS ) were commence to rush up the development and employ of intelligent incorporated safety strategy that utilize information and communicating engineerings as an intelligent declaration, in order to escalate route safety and chair the figure of accidents in our prospect roads. In unsimilarity, as nomadic wireless attack became an of import portion of our life, and the omnipresent Ã¢â¬Ëanywhere, anytimeÃ¢â¬â¢ connectivity strategy is further on magnetic attraction, Internet right to use from vehicles is in monolithic stipulate. The proliferation of cooperated system move in front for I TS and the focal point on information and transit engineerings services on one manus and the mounting figure of communicating infrastructure-enabled agencies of transit on the other manus has opened up fresh production theoretical accounts and cardinal market sections for legion stakeholders in the ITS-market. The Vehicular Communication Networks ( VCNs ) are a anchor of the envisage Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITS ) . Through enabling vehicles to pass on with each other by manner of Inter-Vehicle Communication ( IVC ) every bit good as with wayside base Stationss via Roadside-to-Vehicle Communication ( RVC ) , vehicular system could provide to safer and extra competent roads. The juncture and territory of entry of VCNs are mounting quickly, with abundant vehicle manufacturer and cryptic establishment sharply prolonging investigate and enlargement in this field. The grouping with involved antenna systems, and the progressive dispersion of committed localisation systems ( GP S ) produce VCNs pertinent for the development of forceful protection applications, numbering knock into and concern systems, driver helper and bright traffic supervising system. On the other manus, inter-vehicular communicating ( IVC ) besides fuels the tremendous chances in online car break and enables the incorporation through Internet services and applications. In this Chapter, we nearby a comprehensive portraiture of the province of the art of this speedy traveling research country indicating to look into, undertakings and homogeny attempts that have been done. We discover the exceeding facial visual aspect and challenges that distinguish these extremely self-motivated webs every bit good as their necessities, peculiarly in footings of excellence of service, promote preface and sanctuary. We discuss diverse forwarding and routing attack concentrating on Location-based method including Ã¢â¬Ëanchor-based routing Ã¢â¬Ë . We review miscellaneous Ã¢â¬Ëintelligent floodingÃ¢â¬ â¢ and information airing progress. We terminate by researching future investigate waies in this field. The first IVC surveies have emerged at the beginning of the 1980s in Japan ( for illustration: Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving ) with the addition of people or ware travelling, therefore exciting the geographic expedition of new solutions such as automatic drive, intelligent route planning, etc. Several authorities establishments throughout the universe have led an explorative stage from different world-wide undertakings, affecting a big figure of research units. These undertakings have led to the definition of several possible paradigms and solutions, based on different attacks. In this manner, traffic direction systems were installed in big Nipponese metropoliss and on most urban and intercity main roads. The Japanese have made big investings in the development of driver information systems. In the instance of a main road, the system electronically monitors the velocity and volume of traffic and gives drivers instant warnings on accidents and holds. Warnings and other information for drivers are displayed on different variable message marks. In the Nipponese AHS ( Automated Highway System ) undertaking, the end was to plan an automated main road system for independent drive: control of the vehicle is assumed by a computing machine on board. In the USA, there is the Intelligent Transportation Society of America ( ITS America ) , which is a group of makers, authorities bureaus, universities and other endeavors. This group focuses on research, publicity and development and deployment coordination of ITS applications throughout the USA. As in Japan, the American authorities besides implemented the NAHSC ( National Automated Highway System Consortium ) in 1995. In Europe, the PROMETHEUS ( PROgraM European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety ) undertaking began in 1986 and included over 13 vehicle makers and several universities from 19 European states. In this context, several attacks and solutions refer ing ITSs have been developed, implemented and demonstrated. The consequences of this first measure were a elaborate analysis of the job and the development of a feasibleness survey to accomplish a better apprehension of the conditions and possible effects of using the engineering. Later, and with the technological promotion of communicating, computation and location equipments, other undertakings were carried out and have paved the manner for some IVC applications. Because of the importance of this field, new undertakings were initiated throughout the universe. In Europe, a certain figure of big scale undertakings have late emerged focussing on jobs related to IVC systems. Most of these undertakings were introduced in the context of research plans from the European Community ( 5thand 6ThursdayPCRD ) . However, a big bulk of these undertakings focus on the sole usage of bing substructure for implementing the IVC system, which can be highly expensive. Drive [ DRI 99 ] and GST [ GST 05 ] undertakings are first-class illustrations of these undert akings. DRiVE ( Dynamic Radio for IP Services in Vehicular Environments ) is meant to work on the convergence of different cellular engineerings and high throughput webs ( GSM, UMTS, DAB and DVB-T ) in order to implement the necessary foundation for the development of advanced IP services for vehicles. The GST ( Global Systems for Telematics ) [ GST 05 ] undertaking is besides intended for applications related to route safety. However, this undertaking focuses on the usage of the GSM web. It focuses on jobs in relation with procuring the web and service substructure, operation security and charge.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Abstract Within the health care system of today, many health care providers are introduced to various religious beliefs and practices through caring for those patients and families from different cultures. In order for competent medical treatment to be performed, the health care providers must take into account the religious beliefs of those in our care to deliver good and effective quality of care. This paper will examine this studentÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view on Christianity and compare it with Native American Spirituality, Hinduism, and Buddhistic religious views and faiths regarding healing in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s health care society. PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural and spirituality must be incorporated, and considerations addressed as essential key elements to the overall health of the patient. This will provide the best possible outcomes for the patient. An analysis and comparison of Native American Spirituality, Hinduism and Buddhistic religious views on healing and mortality and will be paralleled, explored and discussed against the Christian faith view of the aforementioned within this paper. Introduction Providing health care to those of different spiritual backgrounds, it is essential to recognize the religious practices and beliefs of the patient and their families. It is of utmost importance to determine the specific needs that correspond with their practices and beliefs. Comprehending these beliefs will permit health care providers to set forth a plan that promotes the best possible outcomes for the patient in the end. The United States of America welcomes people of different nationalities and faiths. With such aÃ diversity of cultures and religions, health care providers are tasked with educating themselves concerning a multitude of faiths and corroborating the information learned with those particular religious beliefs. This allows the patient and families to receive spiritual care as well as the physical care they need. Hospitals nationwide have now recognized the cultural diversity of those that are living in the United States and have implemented a program to the training of its employees in cultural diversity. Christian perspective on restorative health Christian perspective on restorative health is based on the teachings from the Bible. Those who practice this faith believe that no matter the circumstances, God can restore health. While Jesus was alive and walked upon earth, it was proved that He was indeed the Son of God by the ability He had to heal those around Him. He restored health in many different ways. Matthew 14:14 (King James Version), the writer of this first Gospel tells its audience Jesus saw a abundant crowd and He had commiseration the crowd and restored health to the infirmed and debilitated. His touch restored health to the people and healed them (Matthew 9:29-30, King James Version). Through spoken words they were restored to health (Matthew 8:8, King James Version), and He made sound and whole multiple infirmities and afflictions amongst the population (Matthew 9:35, King James Version). People of Christian faiths believe that God can work through gifted individuals for assistance in healing. As declared in the King James Version Bible Ã¢â¬Å"But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a particular people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous lightÃ¢â¬ (1 Peter 2:9, King James Version). Prayer is powerful and Christians are taught that healing can occur, but do not know exactly when this may occur. Christians do have strong faith in His power which comforts us in knowing that He has ultimate control. Christian families and the Church prayer and support, the process of healing begins and ends in this context (James 5:16, King James Version). Christians believe in following Gods word by faith and goodwill and generosity will be granted throughout their lives (Psalms 23:1-6, King James Version). Impression on restoration of health This studentÃ¢â¬â¢s impression on restorative health from illness is one of the foundations of faith about the God of the Bible. Many stories declared in different parts of the Bible narrative restored health required nothing but faith. This student believes in the authority of supplication, individualized, and collectively within the congregate (a collective consciousness) and with supplication, healing has happened. Christianity and Native American Spirituality Compared The majority of Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s do believe that the Great Spirit (some Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s call this Great Spirit Ã¢â¬Å"GrandfatherÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Old ManÃ¢â¬ ), which is part of all creation, from the heavens to the ground with all beings put here on earth. Conception is believed to be a blessing from God by Christians. Native American Spirituality believes that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s health is brought about through actions and interactions they have with the spirit world and wholeness is derived from the balance between the universe and the spirit world. Sickness derives from the imbalance with the spirit world and is causation of disharmony within the individual (Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for Native American Indians,Ã¢â¬ 2004). Christians have faith that God watches over the individual and prevents sickness from occurring. Native American Spiritual care is important through healing rituals which are performed at ceremonies and attended by family, tribe, along with a medical healer, either man or woman (Robinson, 2008). Christians have faith and pray to God that He heals those affected with sickness and diseases. If hospitalized, those of Native American Spirituality rely upon items which are considered sacred and powered by the Great Spirit which are in possession of the patient around the clock for healing (Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for Native American Indians,Ã¢â¬ 2004). As stated above, a ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ faith and belief that prayer is sacred and He answers prayers for good health and healing. When death happens, those of Native American Spirituality have a firm conviction in reincarnation and return in a multitude of forms other than human (Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for Native American Indians,Ã¢â¬ 2004). Whereas, those of Christian faith believes that once a person expires, the soul rises to heaven, but the personsÃ¢â¬â¢ body stays on earth. Christianity and Hinduism Compared Oldest of the world known religions is Hinduism. Hinduism is a way of life.Ã HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s worship multiple deities, but ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ only believe in a single God, who created the ethereal and temporal worlds. HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s adorn themselves ornamental clothing that have a specific religious meaning and some Christians wear special trinkets of faith, according to different denominations. HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s are noted to pray three times a day and depending on the denomination, Christians will attend church several times a week to only once a week. HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s believe in reincarnation once death has transpired (Sharma, 2002), while Christians believe upon death, the soul ascends to heaven and the body stays on earth. Christianity and Buddhism Compared There was a man named Buddha, who after many years of witnessing anguish which was related to old age, sickness, and death, fore sake his family. Setting out alone, his intent was to find lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning. Buddhism (Hinduism also shares this belief), believes in karma. Karma is the belief that the force produced from the actions of a person is held to perpetuate transmigration and its ethical consequences determine the nature of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s next existence, a continuum of rebirth life cycles. A strong belief in karma exist, where every action has a reaction and that everything happens for a reason (Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for BuddhismÃ¢â¬ , 2003) and a ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ faith is that God heals all those who are ill. Christians believe that everyone has one life, one soul, while reincarnation is the belief among the Buddhist. The emphasis of the spiritual well-being of the Buddhist spiritual well-being is the translucence of the mind by prayer along with meditation during sickness. ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ depend up His mercy to restore their health after sickness. But if they are not healed, then they are to accept His will. The Buddhist and the Christian believe health restoration is foundationally grounded in spirituality. Supplication and mediation is practiced by both faiths, but those who are of the Buddhist faith perform chanting (Numrich, 2001). As death nears, both have varying kinfolk, pastoral, ministerial and clergypersonÃ¢â¬â¢s will be summoned to the bedside. Post obitum, posthumous care is critical to the practicing Buddhist. Practitioners of Buddhism believe the incorporeal part of the individual can take up to three days, per say, to evacuate the body (Numrich, 2001). The Christian believes the nonphysical, incorporeal soul ascends to heaven while the physical, corporal body remains. Summation The similarities between the Native American Spirituality, Hindu, and Buddhist devotions include prayer, family, and clergyman or women utilized during sickness and healing. The major difference between the Christian faith and the latter three is that once life ends the belief in reincarnated is paramount and the individual returns to the known world. Christians believe after death has occurred, the soul, the most sacred part, ascends into heaven where God acts as arbiter and judges the individuals faith and deeds while on physically in the world, but the physical vessel, the body will remain behind in the physical world. The utmost importance for the spiritual health of the patient is to combine their beliefs into the plan of care. This can be accomplished with health care providers allowing the individual and kinfolk to partake in specific rituals, which will support the spiritual well-being of the individual. References Guidelines for health care providers interacting with American Indian patients and their families. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.advocatehealth.com/documents/faith/CG-Native_American.pdf Guidelines for health care providers interacting with patients of the Buddhist religion and their families. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.advocatehealth.com/documents/faith/CGBuddhist.pdf Numrich, P. D. (2001). The buddhist tradition: religious beliefs and healthcare decisions. Retrieved from http://www.advocatehealth.com/documents/faith/Buddhist-Tradition.pdf Robinson, B. A. (2008). Native American Spirituality: beliefs of Native Americans, from the Arctic to the Southwest. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/nataspir3.htm Sharma, A. (2002). The Hindu Tradition: religious beliefs and healthcare decisions. Retrieved from http://www.advocatehealth.com/documents/faith/Hindufinal.pdf
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Assess the major themes, based on article ''Sharing In The Global Economy -An Introduction'' written by Adam W. Parson edited by Rejesh Makwana - Essay Example These varied images figure into diverse representations of globalization by which it mean broad understandings of its characteristics, dynamics, causes, and consequences. Some representations are explicitly constructed, publicized, and defended against alternatives Ã¢â¬â as in the neoliberal narratives offered by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), or the critical narratives of groups that oppose corporate globalization, such as Global Exchange. But there are also what we can call implicit representations arising from media coverage of globalization-related issues, formed as people pass the images and ideas they encounter through the filter of their own perspectives and experiences, and build understandings of their own. These diverse representations Ã¢â¬â unfurled in different venues, to different audiences, with different ends matter in so far as they affect the dense networks of forces and relations that shape how globalization unfolds. Thus, for e xample, they may affect such varied processes as: the buying behavior of first-world consumers, the bargaining power of labor, the success and freedom from regulation of multinational corporations, the mandates of elected officials, the authority and funding of the international financial institutions, and shifts of authority for regulating international trade and investment from national into supranational domains. Globalization is almost always understood to be an acceleration of processes of economic integration, spurred by free trade, that have been underway for centuries. To be sure, there are lively debates within the economics profession about the levels and distributions of benefits from globalization and the extent to which it has excesses and inefficiencies that public policy should address. However, few mainstream economists would agree that new conceptual frameworks
Specialized Patrol Functions - Essay Example They also leave themselves open to critics who say they go too far in their activities resulting in a hostile community where people exist in a police state. Narcotics law enforcement is one of the biggest uses of a special force. The members of these units are trained in drug identification as well as knowledge of the drug business in a regional area. The duties often involve undercover work to initiate a buy or get information on drug activity. According to the FBI, "Law enforcement officers often employ trickery and deception to catch those involved in criminal activity" (Kukura 1993). Kukura further states that the Supreme Court has upheld these tactics as legal. This may be effective at prosecuting international drug suspects or child pornographers. However, when it is used against small time drug users in local neighborhoods it can result in a community backlash of racism or injustice. Gang activity in our major cities has grown to epidemic proportions. To effectively investigate and prosecute gang activity necessitates a specialized unit that understands the gang mentality and the law enforcement tools that are available to reduce gang activity. Police need information about members' names, ages, modes of transportation, spending patterns, and the political climate of the neighborhoods they operate in (Bureau of Justice 1997).
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
What is The Cash Flows - Essay Example The investment must be done in those opportunities where the NPV value is highest and in this situation spending money on project Alpha will result in highest NPV. The four main investment appraisal technique methods are Payback Period (PP), Accounting Rate of Return (ARR), Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The four main investment appraisal methods used are segmented into two techniques. Non-discounted cash flow technique includes PP and ARR and discounted cash flow technique includes NPV and IRR. Payback Period (PP) is the time acquired to equal the cash inflows and outflows. In the book Ã¢â¬ËFinancial Accounting for Decision MakersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAccounting: An IntroductionÃ¢â¬â¢ it is discussed that PBP method is important for future context and it is totally cash based. It is also mentioned that it ignores sunk cost and committed cost when applied (Atrill & McLaney, 2013). Payback period is simple to calculate and useful in the short-term and consider the cash flows of the projects which makes it easier to evaluate the liquidity position of the company and decisions about the investment proposals. It explains the management about the time during which investment will be recovered and how quick it could be utilized for another project. On the other hand, this method completely ignores the qualitative aspects of decision making. It is also not possible to analyze the useful life of the asset and does not consider how much cash flow will be generated after payback period is achieved. Payback period ignores the profitability of the company and decision taken on the basis of this method may cause the management to undertake a project which is not profitable. ARR is also known as return on investment and is used to make an analysis of a project, which may take at least a year long time.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Business Environment - Essay Example This paper approves that the general global market analysis has regarded India as efficient and effective investment location for the United Kingdom. Previously the higher level of the tariffs imposed by the respective governments on the list of the selected imports and exports item was responsible for the drastic reduction in the volume of the bilateral trade, but sooner it was realized that India is to be considered as a versatile land which has different flavors to offer. The nature of the trade relationship maintained between both the countries should focus more upon the non-popular items; the exchange of the common items is expected to severe affect the economy of the each country. This essay makes a conclusion that certain gray areas have been identified, and it is expected that the government of United Kingdom will take favorable measures, in exchange for the timely departure and arrival of goods. Considering the example of the Felixstowe which is considered to be the largest port of the country, the port has been used by more than fifteen shipping companies, unfortunately the heavy congestion and failed traffic system has jeopardized the interests of the traders, who always uncertainty of the timely arrival. It is therefore essential for the United Kingdom to offer regular and efficient mode for communication, and ensure that the rights of the local and foreign traders are protected, the exploration of efficient and effective modes of transport is essential because Ã¢â¬ËIndia is efficient and reliable gateways through which the country conduct a fluid system of tradeÃ¢â¬â¢.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
A Role of Transfer Climate and Transfer Systems for Positive Results of Training Programs - Case Study Example Ã¢â¬Å"Supervisors don't get barriers to transfer and continue to call the shots. The only thing they know about communication is downward," she said. "Maybe they should have attended your training program!" Well, this ensures that not only subordinates need to change, but the change must also bring in throughout the system. So the first barrier to transfer could be supervisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ bossy attitude (attitudinal barrier) and lacks the support of top management(structure barrier), supervisors usually do not promote the change where they need to share their decision making authority and to listen to subordinates. Secondly there was a possibility that inappropriate communication channel (channel barriers) was used to deliver the message, lastly, these types of training sessions should be attended by each level of managers so each manager can make effort to promote effective communication and listening. As far as the school board is concerned, barriers to transfer remain the same but th e scenario is a bit changed, therefore, it impacts the nature of barriers as well. In a school environment, teachers suppose to initiate the change and make sure the implementation by students, so the important barrier to transfer operating at the school board can be lack of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative to implement and support the implications of training. After the training, continuous learning (DeCenzo and Robbins, 2005) is required at the school to the students which enhances their performance and encourages participation, so if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not provided it can be a source of discouragement to students. Another barrier is common between organizations and school, that is an inappropriate use of communication channel (Noe and Winkler, 2009) for example if a teacher uses only verbal communication to deliver lectures than it might be not that effective as it can be if slides are used to deliver the lecture. The other important barrier to transfer operations can be the existing infrast ructure of the school which is inefficient to support the change. Lastly, if the principal or the deputy's head is not taking follow-ups on improvement than it might slow down the process.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Criminology 1 question dark figure of crime - Essay Example Many of undisclosed as well as unreported crime to the authority lead to unresolved issues within a society hence portraying unreliability both in the governance as well as to a given society. The United States of America uses two major crime data collection in their statistics. These methods include the national Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the uniform crime reports. The FBI crime department in United States of America majorly uses the Uniform Crime Reports system of data collection of crime. The FBI to detect crimes on murder, rape cases, robbery, burglary, aggravated assault, as well as theft of vehicles uses this system of data collection. However, UCR data collection system has been re defined by FBI agency in United States of America. Meanwhile National Incident-Based Reporting system crime information system is another system that is used by FBI, having been revised from UCR as from 1980s.It majorly works based on justice systems characteristics, public attitudes on crime, persons arrested, known offenses, judicial defendant processes as well as supervision correction (Russell & Milovanovic, 2001). The ability of UCR system is that it only allows eight tracks of crimes to be detected while NIBRS tracks 46 crimes simultaneously. However, the arrests within UCR system have specific report on the incident that has happened while the counterpart contains more information arrests on each of the incident done per timeline. Meanwhile, UCR system of crime data collection mostly reports domestic violence giving less concern on simple assault unlike in the NIBRS system of crime data collection. The worse of all in the UCR system is that if a matter is about murder, the system only reports a single incident while the other system reports multiple offenses in relation to the victims and offenders. NIBRS system of crime data collection in regards to dark figure of crime is a new methodology of uniform crime report
Friday, August 23, 2019
See No Evil The U.S. Response to the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda - Essay Example The role of media will also be examined vis--vis as an aiding tool in the genocide and its deliberative inertia in generating public response. The international context of US foreign policy response will also be examined in the aftermath of Somalia and in the theoretical framework of national interest vs humanitarianism framework. The response of UN will also be examined under organizational interest. This approach to the case study will not only answer the posed questions but will also try to link the various dimensions and coordinates of this International Humanitarian crisis. The problems of Africa have to be viewed within the inter-contextual relationships of colonization, decolonization, racism and 'neo-colonialism'. In the small country of Rwanda approximately 800000 to 1 million human beings were slaughtered within a span of just around hundred days; in a ruthlessly organized manner. In order to lend perspective to our analysis about US and UN apathy towards this incident it is imperative that we first examine the context of Rwanda as a post-colonial state. Rwanda's underdevelopment in both social as well as economic terms, which precipitated the massacre, has to be understood in terms of colonial state 'manufacturing'. Post colonial Africa was divided not according to natural or even perhaps geographical barriers. Countries were created in accordance with the territorial occupation of colonial metropole. The cauldron of state creation in Africa was designed to serve the interests of the metropole. The new nations, right from the outset were plagued with structural anomalies. The development problem in its entire scope was a conscious construct of metropole. The local elite was created and co-opted in an 'international social structure' serving the world capitalist economy. These elites are 'trained' and 'conditioned' in to western habits of 'consumption' and 'values' so as to serve the metropolitan interest even after they have left (Zartman.1976). Besides creating this, outward looking 'vernacular elite' (Jehan.1972), it is argued th at social identities and strata are also a deliberate colonial construct. In case of Africa amorphous identities were crystallized in to tribal identities based on a 'race science' (Hintjens.2001), concept of social engineering. 'Rwandan genocide is the most dramatic example of race science in action since the Holocaust' (ibid, pp.25). It has been argued and reasonably established that amorphous identities in Rwanda were manipulated and converted in to lethal and organized form of solidified tribal affiliations (Gourevitch.1998, Gasana et all., 1999, Lemarchand.1996). The Tutsi and Hutu were class stratification, a status term rather then a defined, historical ethnic identity. 'Until the early twentieth century, an individual could be both Hutu in relation to his patrons and Tutsi in relation to his own clients'(Lemarchand.1996:pp.9-14). In the pre-colonial era this nebulous social positioning was never an ethnic stratification and social fluidity from Hutu to Tutsi and vice versa w as common (Goyvaerts.1999; Newbury.1998; Prunier.1995). The Germans after the Berlin Congress got Rwanda as part of German East Africa and thereafter they transplanted their racist ideology in their colonies, including Rwanda. It was the German metropole which first of all implanted the idea of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Holocaust Denial Essay David Irving has claimed that the Holocaust was a hoax and that there were no gas chambers in Auschwitz; discuss the evidence for and against this claim. One is astonished in the study of history at the recurrence of the idea that evil must be forgotten, distorted, skimmed over. The difficulty, of course, with this philosophy is that history loses its value as an incentive and example; it paints perfect men and noble nations, but it does not tell the truth. -W.E.B Du Bois, Black Reconstruction, 1935. There could not be a more appropriate account to go with the debate between Holocaust deniers, and those who see it as a genuine event in history. From our mid teens we are taught about the events that occurred under Hitlers reign, the most horrific of those being the mass genocide of an estimated eleven million people, many of which Jews, during the Holocaust. It is also taught that the most famous extermination camp existed at Auschwitz, where up to 10000 people were exterminated per day. These are exactly the kind of facts that were presented to me during school, and to many others; some individuals, however, claim that this horrific event never took place. Those who claim the Holocaust did not appear as traditional history describes, believe that the current mainstream understanding of the Holocaust is the result of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy created to advance the interest of Jews at the expense of other nations. (1) A statement remarkably closely related to the anti-Semitic views of the Nazis. In the case of Holocaust deniers, it is more of a case of a lack of evidence which they use to promote their views; no conclusive evidence has been presented, with numerous Holocaust deniers admitting to have lied about so called facts. (2) The main claims which Holocaust deniers make are that the Nazis had no formal policy or plan of exterminating Jews. That Nazis did not use gas chambers to mass-murder Jews, and that the figure of between 5 and 6 million Jewish deaths is a significant exaggeration and the actual number is much lower, a few hundred thousand at most. Other claims include the notion that the documentary evidence in support of the Holocaust, photographs and the Diary of Anne Frank for example, is fabricated, that survivor testimonies are unreliable, and that the Nazi prisoners confessions were obtained through the use of torture a process which can lead to inaccurate information. (3) One example of survivor testimonies being unpredictable is an excerpt of a conversation David Irving supposedly had with a survivor: IRVING: You said you saw smoke coming from the crematoria? SURVIVOR: Absolutely IRVING: Is that correct? SURVIVOR: Correct IRVING: But crematoria do not smoke, Mrs Altman. Go and visit your local crematorium in Sydney (Evans (2002) page 142) Irving took challenging the Holocaust to the extreme, and proclaimed himself as a Hitler supporter, which may have something to do with him living, working and studying in Germany for many years. In Irvings book, Hitlers War, he states that Hitler did not order the extermination of Europes Jews: the mass killings must have been carried out by Himmler and his cohorts behind Hitlers back (4) The Institute of Historical Research (IHR) states that The Institute does not deny the Holocaust. And that there is no dispute over the fact that large numbers of Jews were deported to concentration camps and ghettos, or that many Jews died or were killed during World War II. But that the Holocaust the alleged extermination of some six million Jews (most of them by gassing) is a hoax and should be recognized as such by Christians and all informed, honest and truthful men everywhere. More than being just a pro-Nazi viewpoint, Holocaust deniers believe that the death-toll amount which is widely accepted is a falsehood in an attempt to get more compensation, and sympathy. It is believed that the interest of the Zionist movement is to augment the amount of Holocaust deaths so that their gains will be greater. (5) The Holocaust deniers maintain that the Holocaust is a myth in order to establish the possibilities which can occur when an individual or group of people try to play God. This claim may have resulted from various factors, and in many cases of a denial, a particular political agenda backs it up, along with their own personal beliefs colouring their view. To fully understand the claims of these people, both sides of the debate must be looked at. The case which acknowledges the Holocaust as it is presented has much more convincing evidence, the most notable of which being photographs, video footage and personal accounts. Where the Holocaust deniers get their supposed evidence from however, is the jigsaw in which the evidence which shows the Holocaust as the event were taught it to be is made up of. Those denying the event say that the pieces of primary sources which prove the existence of the Holocaust, are in fact fabricated in an attempt to make people think that certain events happened when thy in fact, did not. (1) There are many accounts from survivors of the Holocaust, a selection of which exists in Lyn Smiths Forgotten Voices of the Holocaust, within which mentions the implementation of the final solution. In the same note it is said that upon arrival, most were sent immediately to the gas chamber and crematorium. (6). For females in concentration camps it was an even more shocking ordeal regularly being raped, and on giving birth having their babies taken from them to be murdered. Dennis Avey, a British prisoner of war at Auschwitz gives his account: Now dreadful things were happening in Auschwitz-Birkenau during 1944. They were gassing and burning thousands of people who could not work any more because of their failing strength; I knew practically everything that was going on thereThey just put them into the gas chambers using this Zyklon B gas and then they were burned. And this happened day in and day out. (6) There are many other accounts which describe similar stories, such a vast amount of matching testimonies can not possibly be a fabrication, but that is not the only evidence which supports the events of the Holocaust and Auschwitz. There are many photographs of the gas chambers, and of mass graves. Not only is there masses of evidence recorded to verify the authenticity of the Holocaust; but it is backed up by sworn testimony from both victims and the culprits. In addition to this there is evidence which Allied soldiers discovered when they liberated the camps. There is also a host of documentary evidence; the Nazis were extremely particular about keeping records, some of which were presented as evidence to the Nuremberg Tribunal and a set of evidence from several post-war trials. As well as archaeological evidence as further proof, there are bookings by the SS for the special trains to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. Of course, the issue which arises with both of these claims, and history as a whole, is that unless someone is actually present at an event and experiencing something, they have no way of knowing exactly what went on during a given time and date. It is for these reasons which we need to rely on sources other than ourselves to understand the past, and a primary source is the most reliable place to look first. Talking with a Holocaust survivor, reading the diaries like that of a certain Anne Frank hiding from the Gestapo, and looking at pictures and videos from Nazi Germany at that time allows for the closest link possible from today to the days gone by, and rejecting these ideas as a fabrication severs the best link to the truth. Holocaust deniers will be inclined to believe what they want to be true, even if it does not match up historically. The Holocaust was a dismal time not only for the Jewish race, but also a cataclysmic event in the history of mankind. The idea that not all people are equal and those of less value need to be exterminated is a notion that should never have occurred. The evidence that we have today appears to confirm that the Jewish Genocide by the Nazi people was a real event. In addition, it is extremely difficult to reasonably doubt this event and believe that people would lie about such an ordeal. References 1. Gizon, A. (2009). Holocaust. www.projectaladin.org. [Last accessed 23 June 2010] 2. Nikzor, P. (2008). David Irving. www.nizkor.org. [Last accessed 23 June 2010] 3. Lipstadt, D. (2009). Denying the Holocaust. www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars. [Last accessed 23 June 2010] 4. Irving, D. (1991). Hitlers War. London: Focal Point Publications. 5. Austin, B. (2004). Holocaust Denial. www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. [Last accessed 23 June 2010] 6. Smith, L. (2005). Forgotten Voices of the Holocaust. London: Ebury Press. P.156/210
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Realistic Option for Chamberlain in 1938 Essay Asses the view that appeasement was the only realistic option for Chamberlain in 1938 Appeasement was the British foreign policy adopted by Chamberlain in the wake of World War Two. This policy was seen as cowardice and Chamberlain received huge criticism for maintaining it throughout the road to war and died with the title of the man who was too coward to stand up to Hitler and his Nazi Germany which led to World War One. Churchill, a very strong opponent of appeasement, notoriously said Ã¢â¬Å"An appeaser is one who feeds the crocodile hoping it will eat him lastÃ¢â¬ . However it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t till the late 1960s that official Government documents on the subject were publically released which created a new view on Chamberlain and appeasement and that it was the only realistic policy for Chamberlain and Britain to pursue. One argument is the view that appeasement was the only realistic option because public opinion supported it and for Chamberlain to lead Britain to war would go against public favour. The First World War savaged Europe and Britain was hit very hard in terms of Human losses. Many families lost men within the family and left psychological scars nationwide. Chamberlain was therefore desperate to avoid another war on the continent at all costs. If Britain was to go to war they would have to rearm and build on their armed forces which had been neglected since world war one. However public opinion was that if Britain was rearming then they would be preparing for war, which was incredible unpopular. Evidence of this was in east Fulham by-election of 1933 the conservative who advocated rearmament turned a majority of 14,000 into a defeat by 5000 at the hands of his labour approach who supported disarmament. This illustrated the political affect that rearmament and policies that move towards War had which was a reason as to why Chamberlain saw appeasement as the only realistic option. Historian Howarth exemplifies this in his book by saying Ã¢â¬Å"chamberlains desire to avoid war matched the anxiety of the British people about being bought into a conflict like that of 1914-1918Ã¢â¬ . Chamberlain wanted to represent and pursue the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s interests, and in going to war he felt that he would have portrayed them incorrectly. When the opportunity ofÃ going to war with Germany with the support of Czechoslovakia he stated Ã¢â¬Å"a quarrel in a faraway country between people of whom we know nothingÃ¢â¬ . This insinuated that he was not prepared to risk British lives and go against public opinion for a nation on the other side of Europe of which Britain had not previously been closely tied with. Therefore appeasement was once again the only realistic option. On the other hand it can be argued that Chamberlain was appointed the Prime minister of Britain and should therefore know BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests and should not be influenced by public opinion if it was against BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s security and wellbeing. Chamberlain knew the situation far greater than the populace of Britain and should therefore make the best informed decision without being influenced by public opinion. Simon Peaple enforces this by stating Ã¢â¬Å"newsreels and press reports provided only limited coverage of the crisis, so public opinion on the matter was limitedÃ¢â¬  . This therefore insinuates that the public did not have a great enough understanding to influence the decision of a well informed Prime minister. Churchill, Chamberlains biggest opponent in office and biggest critic of appeasement said in one of his speeches Ã¢â¬Å"I have been told that the reason why the government has not acted before was that public opinion was not ripe for rearmament. I hope that we shall never accept such a reason as that. The government has been in control of overwhelming majorities in both houses of parliament. There is no vote which would not have been accepted wither overwhelming strengthÃ¢â¬ . This speech by Churchill comments that public opinion should not have influenced government foreign affairs nor should they influence a decision to rearm in the interests of national security especially when the Government in power had the vast majority and could have passed any law that was seen as suitable for Britain and therefore appeasement was not the only realistic policy in terms of public support.  Churchill speech  20th century history 1979 by Howarth  Chamberlain speech  European diplomacy 1870-1939 by Simon Peaple  Churchill speech on public opinion on the 22nd may 1935
Quantification of Opiates in Hair Samples The analysis of controlled drug abuse has been primarily been carried out using urine samples. This is then complemented further with use of other biological fluids such as blood, sweat and saliva. There are many advantages as to why urine is a better biological fluid to use in comparison to the other biological fluids. Some these include: Less invasive No needles required to obtain the sample. Little medical supervision required Cost of conducting the test is lower Urinalysis however also has some limitations, some which are The drug detection window (DDW), the time frame in which the drug can be detected is somewhat short. It is typically 1-3 days. The sample can be easily contaminated; therefore testing is carried out on an altered sample. The sample can be easily changed if it is diluted.  There are also safety issues, if improper care is taken when handling the sample then sin contact may lead to infections. Abstinence can also provide inaccurate readings. If prior knowledge of when the test is going to be carried out, the user may abstain from using the controlled substance a few day prior to the test being carried out. Consumption of excessive water the user excessive amount of water are consumed then the sample given may be diluted, therefore providing an inaccurate concentration of the drug abuse. The cut off point- Urinalysis tends not to have a low enough of a cut off point. This will mistake controlled drug abuse with other possible metabolites of food. An example of this is the consumption of poppy seeds. This can be mistaken for morphine abuse. With further developments analytical techniques such as GC/MS hair samples are now the preferred sample to for the analysis of controlled drug abuse. This is then complemented with urinalysis and blood analysis. The advantages using hair include Drugs are commonly found in hair samples. Hair tends to be more of a qualitative test rather than a quantitative. It measures the concentration and frequency of the abuse, not just its presence.  A longer DDW measures the abuse the abuse over months and years, as appose to days. The chart above shows the concentration of a drug present urine and hair over a period of 12 days Hair is easier to handle poses no threat of infection if skin contact is made . Hair is a more stable specimen it has a stable protein structure which cannot be easily contaminated  Little medical supervision or surgical intervention is required when obtaining the sample and is therefore seen to be less invasive. 1 HAIR 1.1Ã Anatomy of Hair Hair is made up of two distinct compartments, the shaft and the follicle/root. The shaft is the visible outer part, which comes out of the skin on the scalp. This part is often referred to as the dead part of hair. The reason for this is that the compartment within the skin, the follicle has a bulb shaped ending. Within the centre of the bulb there are cells, which are constantly dividing. As new cells are produced the older one are pushed up. As they are moving up they die slowly, which then form the hard shaft. Each strand of hair is made up of protein fibres called keratins. The chemical composition of keratin includes long chains of amino acids. One key example of these amino acids is cysteine, which contains sulphur. One key ability of sulphur is its ability to form bonds with other sulphur molecules, disulpher bridges. This is type of chemistry is present in hair. Adjacent keratin proteins link together to form disulphide bonds. The molecular interactions between these bonds are quite strong, and therefore it is quite hard to break the bond between them. The disulphide bonds can be broken using an alkali solution, as acidic solutions generally have no effect. Each strand consists of three layers the cuticle, cortex and medulla. The medulla is made up of cells that are quite large and hollow. The middle layer is the cortex, which makes up the majority of hair. The cells in this layer are tightly packed due to cross links between the keratin chains. The characteristic of hair are predominantly determined by this layer. This includes the colour of hair. Other characteristic determined by the cortex are the flexibility and strength of hair and the also the texture. The cuticle is the outermost layer and is formed by a single layer of overlapping tightly packed cells, which are transparent in appearance. This layer provides protection for the cortex and the medulla. This layer also characterises the strength of hair, as its strenuousness it is able to take the effects of any impact. Within the root is the follicle, this is a multilayered bulb like structure. Where each layer has its own function. At the base of the bulb is the dermal papilla. This is fed by small blood vessels. The function of these vessels is to provide essential nutrients and oxygen to the growing hair, it also removes any waste products. This is also the site of where signals are received, instructing hair to grow.  This is done by the presence of hormones and adrenogens. The adrenogens determine when hair grows and also the size of the follicle. Therefore influencing the physical properties of hairs, i.e. thickness. The hair follicle is covered by two sheaths, the inner and outer. The function of these sheath is to provide protection to the hair shaft. The inner sheath coats the follicle up to the opening of the sebaceous gland. The outer sheath coats the follicle all the way up to the gland. 1.2Ã The Hair Cycle Each strand of hair grows in a repeated three stage cycle, starting with the Anagen phase continuing to the Catagen phase and concluding with the Telogen phase.  Anagen phase: Hair growth phase Occurs with 85 % of hairs at any one time Duration: 2-6 Years Activity: Stimulus received at dermal papilla Ã¢â â Rapid reproduction ofÃ keratinocytes within the bulb Ã¢â â Upward movement of keratinocytes Ã¢â â Formation of hair shaft Catagen Phase: Regression phase Duration: 1-2 Weeks Activity: Mitosis cycle ends and reabsorption occurs Ã¢â â The old keratinocytesÃ cells are then preceded by the new ones Ã¢â â Death of the previousÃ keratinocytes Ã¢â â Hair follicle size reduced by 1/6 Ã¢â â Degradation ofÃ the lower part Ã¢â â Hair follicle becomes detached Ã¢â â KeratinocytesÃ cells attached to the follicle and the dermal enter the next phase. Telogen Phase: Rest phase Occurs with 15% of hairs Duration: 3 Months Activity: Dermal papilla is in a resting state Ã¢â â Towards the end of the stage,Ã the hair and follicle become detached from one another Ã¢â â a newÃ connection made between the lower part of the follicle and the dermalÃ papilla Ã¢â â Once the connection has been made, the cycle will startÃ again Ã¢â â Anagen phase Ã¢â â Formation of a new hair, if the previousÃ hair is still attached to the follicle then the new one will push out theÃ old hair  1.4Ã Integration of Opiates Into Hair There have been several studies carried out that look into how drugs and their metabolites are integrated into hair. These studies have proposed some simple mechanisms as to how this is done. However an in depth explanation would require further studies to be carried out. As hair has a protein structure, it is able to trap the metabolites present in the blood into hair whilst the structure is being synthesised. This is auctioned whilst the hair is attached to the follicle, i.e. whilst the hair is growing. As the hair fibre is being formed, the drug and its metabolites become integrated. This will result in the drug and its metabolites to be stabilised within the keratin structure. The basic model proposes a mechanism that a drug and it metabolites may be integrated by passive diffusion. This is where the drug is passively diffused from the dermal capillaries into the growing hair cells. The point at which this passive diffusion occurs is when the hair is follicle length is at a length of approximately 1.2 1.5 mm long. This is the length between the hair matrix area and the area of the keratinised area. This suggests that if the hair is 1.2 1.5 mm long then drug exposure of about three days is available for analysis. A more detailed model can also explain how drugs and their metabolites can be integrated into hair. This takes into account different mechanisms occurring various times of the hair growth cycle, and at a number of different locations. The research into this multi-compartment theory was initiated by Henderson , but has since been backed up by further studies. An example of this is, the movement of the drugs and its metabolites from sweat and Sebum. The integration of the drugs and their metabolites occurs once the hair has been formed. Studies have shown that the concentration of drugs in sweat is higher than the concentration found in blood. This would therefore explain the high concentrations if drugs found in hair.  Drugs can also be integrated into hair from the external environment, i.e. from air, water and hair treatments such as hair dying, and perming. As well as the external environment drugs can also be integrated with hair by intradermal transfer. This happens deep within the skin compartment, where highly lipid soluble drugs can penetrate into the skin layer and then become integrated into hair.  Also melanin content may have some influence on the drug being transferred. The drug may associate with melanin sites that are present in the skin. This will result in the transfer of the drug and its metabolites as well as melanin pigment molecule. The actual properties of the drug being integrated will also ultimately influence which mechanism is used for the drug to be integrated with hair. Examples of these properties include the structural, chemical, and physical properties. When looking specifically at the structural properties, there are three factors that will influence the mechanism undertaken to integrate the hair.  These include: The melanin content of the hair The lipophilicity of the drug The basicity of the drug The influence of melanin on the integration of the drug with has been examined in several studies. A sample of grey hair was analysed. It can be seen that the sample contains white hair and pigmented hair. It was found that even though the root had been placed under the same conditions, i.e. the same concentration of the drug and its metabolites in the blood the pigmented had ten times the concentration of the basic drug compared to the hair sample that was not pigmented.  This study carried out by M. Rothe et al prompted further studies to be carried out. These looked at the difference in drug concentration between black, brown, blonde and red coloured hair. The results obtained from this study also found the correlating results. The integration of uncharged organic i.e. lipophilic drugs can infiltrate the membrane with ease, as well as being able to diffuse along the concentration gradient. This however is not the case with lipophobic or charged drugs. When they try to infiltrate the membrane a drug resistant barrier is formed, therefore restricting the drug from entering the membrane. Also basic and acid drugs, are highly ionised can enter the membrane if the charge they have is neutralised. This is achieved by deprotonation or protonation. This suggests that the pkA of the drug is an important factor, when it is trying to enter the melanocyte cells so it can be integrated with hair. Studies have also found that the intracellular pH of melanocytes typically ranges from 3 to about 5. Due to this chemical property, there is an increase in the accumulation of drugs at pigmented sites. However this is not the case for all acidic drugs, so this is why they are often found in lower concentrations.  2. Opiates and Opioids 2.1Ã Derivation and active component The opiates are derived from opium. Opium is released from immature seeds that grow within the poppy plant, also known as papaverus somniferum. The active component from which the opiates are synthesised, is known as the latex. This is a white milk like emulsion fluid that is released, when an incision made on the green wall of the poppy plant seed. The latex is removed typically between 1-3 weeks after the poppy plant has flowered. The white latex is then dried, leading to the formation of brown coloured opium. They are a group of about twenty opiate alkaloids. An opiates can however is a synthetic chemical/drug that can be synthesised using an opiate as starting material, or be fully synthesised to mimic the action of an opiate. Morphine is the most prominent opiate present within opium, making up 10%. Codeine is second, which makes up approximately 5% of opium. The other main constituents of opium include thebaine, noscapine and papaverine. Some of the twenty alkaloids can be synthesised further in laboratories They can be synthesised using an opiate as starting material, or be fully synthesised to mimic the action of an opiate. An example of this is the synthesis of heroin from morphine. There are also opioids that can be synthesised fully in a laboratory. An example of this type of opioid is methadone. 2.2Ã Classification The opiates can be classified into three main categories, natural opiates, semi synthetic opioids and fully synthetic opioids. 2.2.1Ã Natural Opiates These are chemical/drugs that are synthesised directly from the latex that is produced from the seedlings of the poppy plant. Once the latex has been dried it is now known as opium. The natural opiates are then extracted from the dried opium. The most abundant chemical/drug present in the opium is morphine, accounting for 10 % of opium. The second most abundant natural opiate is codeine, account for approximately 5 % of opium. Thebaine is the third most abundant opiate, accounting for approximately 3% of opium. Thebaine The chemical composition of morphine and codeine is quite complex. This is why it is not feasible to synthesise them in a laboratory. This therefore means that the best method of obtaining these opiates is through direct extraction from the poppy plant. 2.2.2Ã Semi Synthetic Opiates These types of opiates are synthesised using the natural opiates, such morphine as starting points. There are a vast amount of semi synthetic opiates. One example of a natural opiate being used to synthesise a semi synthetic opiate is the production of heroin from morphine. HEROIN The reaction of morphine with acetic anhydride results in the formation of diacytylmorphine, also known as heroin. Morphine as well as the other natural opiates are the starting material for many semi synthetic opiates. The table below shows examples of these semi synthetic opiates. Semi Synthetic Opiate Also Known As Starting Natural Opiate Chemical Structure Hydromorphone Dihydromorphinone and Dimorphone Morphine Hydrogenated ketone Hydrocodone Dihydrocodeinone Codeine and Thebaine Oxycodone Dihydrohydroxycodeinone Thebaine The structure is similar to codeine, but differs in 3 ways 1 -hydroxyl group at C-14, codeine has a H 2- has a dihydro between C 7,8, codeine has double C bond 3- carbonyl group present instead of a hydroxyl group Oxymorphone 14-Hydroxydihydromorphinone Thebaine or Morphine Esterification of the hydroxyl groups Desomorphine Dihydrodesoxymorphine Morphine Remove 6-hydroxy group Saturation of the 7,8 C double bond Heroin Diacetylmorphine Morphine- Addition of acetyl ester groups at C 3,6, therefore diacetyl ester of morphine Codethyline Ethylmorphine Codeine or Morphine the OC2H5 group substituted for an aromatic 3-OH 2.2.3Ã Fully Synthetic Opiates The fully synthetic opioids are completely chemically different to opiates, however the mode of action on the body. The fully synthetic opiates are able to mimic the way morphine acts on the body. The first type of fully synthetic opiates that was synthesised was called meperidine. This was then with the production of methadone. Some other examples of fully synthetic opiates are fentanyl, pethidine, tramadol and dextropropoxyphene. The advantages of synthesising these synthetic opiates are that the potency of the chemical/drug can be rapidly increased, in comparison to that of morphine. 2.2.4Ã Endogenous Opiates These are natural substances that are produced within the brain. The characteristics of the endogenous opiates are similar to that of the alkaloid opiates that derived from the poppy plant, commonly known as exogenous opiates. The endogenous opiates interact with opiates receptors in the same way as the exogenous opiates i.e. causing analgesia and euphoria. Examples of these endogenous opiates are Endorphins Enkephalins Dynorphins 2.3 Mode of Action of Opiates Opiates are chemicals that act on the body in two ways. The first is by reducing or stopping chemical signals, therefore having sedative effects. This will result in a reduction reaction time in which the body reacts to pain, also helps to decrease the awareness of pain and finally helps increase the tolerance of pain. The second way in which the opiates act within the body is to create a feeling of elation. The mechanisms that allow the opiates to behave this way is achieved by the interactions that occur at the opiate receptors. The opiate receptors are located mainly in the central nervous system, i.e. the brain and spinal cord and also within the respiratory centre. The body also produces it own natural opiates, known as endogenous opiates. Some examples of these endogenous opiates are endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins. They are all released naturally to interact with the opiate receptors. The endorphins are located in the hypothalamus, and are released in response to stress. The enkephalins are present within the central nervous system, and act on the pain pathways. The dynorphins are also located in central nervous system, the spinal cord. They are also associated with the pain pathways. These natural opiates interact with three main opiate receptors mu, kappa and delta, which are g-protein coupled. The opiates that are derivative of the poppy plant are called exogenous opiates. They also interact with the mu, kappa and opiate receptors. If the use of the exogenous opiate s is abused, adverse effects. As well as the opiates being able to block pain, they also make the user feel elated. This is the result of the opiates reacting with mu opiate receptors. The same receptor that the endogenous opiates, endorphin reacts with. Due to these properties it is often the case that opiates are used recreationally as appose to medically. 3. Extraction of Opiates from Hair 3.1 In order to determine the presence of in a hair sample, the drugs need to be extracted from the hair structure. The reason for this is that there have not been any developments in analytical techniques that analyse the hair and drug when they are combined in one structure. This is why extraction steps are taken to analyse the drug separately from the hair structure. The choice of solvent used for the extraction process must take into consideration the chemical structure of the drug, and what response they will have to the solvent. 3.2Ã Division of hair in to segments Hair must be divided into segments prior to the opiates being extracted. As hair grows at a rate 0.5 inches per month [ref -see notes], it provides a timeline of when and at what concentration the opiates we consumed. The hair sample must be all be of the same length prior to being analysed. It is quite difficult to quantify at which period of time the opiate was consumed if a clump of hair is used as appose to a single strand of hair. it is generally get harder the longer the distance from the root. This is why it is beneficial to analyse the hair sample in sections. [25-22] Studies carried out, have found the following divisions of a 45 cm length provide the optimum analysis. Staring from the root the following divisions are made: 4 x 0.5 cm 3 x 1.0 cm 2 x 2.0 cm 2 x 3.0 cm 2 x 5.0 cm 2 x 10 cm 3.3Ã Decontamination of hair Prior to any extraction techniques being carried out on hair, any external contaminants must be removed. Although the analytical techniques analyse the opiates that are incorporated within the hair structure, sometimes other substances may be detected if the decontamination process is not actioned correctly. The results of the analysis may account for surface contaminants that may have made contact with hair, i.e. if the user has touched a substance and subsequently touches their hair. This will result in a positive result eng obtained even though the user has not consumed the substance. Other possible sources of these contaminants may be from hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners. Also any hair styling products, such waxes and hair sprays also need to be removed. As well these sweat and any fatty sebum released from the sebaceous glands need to be removed. Also environmental contaminants such dust need to be discarded. If the sample prior to being cut was exposed to any drugs in the environment, this step will remove this source of contamination. The reason for decontaminating the hair sample is to prevent any background noise when the sample is analysed. The choice of the decontaminant has to have specific properties. This is because it has to remove any external contaminants, however not be able to remove any of the drugs and its metabolites from the hair sample.  Non protic solvents such as dichlormomethane and acetone are good decontaminates as they do not swell the hair, so extraction will not occur. Using a 300mg sample of hair is used. It is placed into an ultrasonic bath, There are series wash cycles performed on the hair sample, and are usually initiated with two washes with dichloromethane. A typical experiment conducted in , which tried to determine the opiate content in hair carried out four different wash cycle, on four different samples of hair. 20 ml of dichloromethane, 15 ml of acetone, 15 ml of methanol, 10 ml of methanol. 20 ml of isopropanol, 15 ml of acetone, 15 ml of methanol, 10 ml of methanol. 20 ml of dichloromethane, 15 ml of isopropanol, 15 ml of methanol, 10 ml of methanol. 20 ml of n-hexane , 15 ml of acetone, 15 ml of methanol, 10 ml of methanol. This experiment showed that a mixture of solvents could be used to wash the hair samples. 3.4Ã Disintegration of opiates from hair structure As there are currently no analytical techniques that test for opiates whilst they are integrated within the hair structure. This means that the hair structure must first of all be digested and then the drugs and its metabolites are extracted, to determine which drugs are present. There are various solvents used to extract opiates and its metabolites from hair. 3.4.1Ã Extraction with Methanol Methanol is a good solvent used to extract opiates from hair. It is hydrophilic, so it can enter the hair structure quite easily. The action of methanol is that it causes the hair to swell up. This will result in the drugs integrated within the hair structure to be released. This is done by the opiates diffusing out. This extraction is carried out in an ultrasonic bath. This helps to degrade the hair structure. There are some impurities still present once this methanol extraction has been carried out. So a secondary clean up is still required.  There are some disadvantages to this extraction method. This is because the amount of drug obtained from the extraction procedure, is quantitatively less than other extraction methods used to derive opiates hair from hair. However the main disadvantage of using is that using methanol extraction, this is that the opiate extracted can sometimes be hydrolysed. An example is the conversion of 6-monoacetylmprphine (Heroin) to morphine. This results in the non detection of monoacetylmprphine (heroin).  Therefore when trying to detect the opiate Heroin, it can be hydrolysed to morphine. Therefore resulting in the heroin present in hair to go undetected.  3.4.2Ã Extraction with a buffer solution This extraction procedure is widely used to extract opiates and their metabolites from hair. It generally seen to be one the more successful methods. A typical buffer solution would be a phosphate buffer, at a pH of approximately 6.4 7.6.  In comparison to methanol phosphate buffer are seen to be a cleaner approach of extracting opiates. In addition to use the phosphate sometimes additional enzyme are added to help to determine intricate metabolites. A typical enzymes used are combination of glucuronidase and arylsulphitase. 3.4.3Ã Supercritical Fluid Extraction This method uses a supercritical fluids such carbon dioxide (CO2) to extract opiates from hair. It is seen to be advantageous over other extraction methods, as supercritical fluids have specific properties that allow them to be more efficient in extracting opiates and their metabolites from hair samples. Some examples of these properties include that physically, supercritical fluids are less viscous than other solvents. This in turn allows them to move more freely.  They have an increased speed of extraction, in particular with opiates. Research carried out into the extraction of opiates from hair using supercritical fluids by Edder et al. It was found that use of the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide, not only speeded up the extraction process but also retrieved a high yield. It was found that 100 % of the morphine that was present in the hair sample was extracted, along with 98.2% codeine, and 92% of methadone. This was all done in a 25 minute procedure.  Other advantages of using supercritical fluids to extract opiates from hair samples are that it has been found that supercritical fluids tend not to contaminate the samples, in comparison to solid phase extraction and liquid liquid extraction. The efficiency of this method also allows the procedure to be more automated in comparison to other extraction techniques. 3.4.4Ã Enzymatic Digestion of the Hair matrix This method primarily uses the enzymes pronase and protein kinase A to break down the hair structure. The procedure requires the hair sample to be placed into the enzyme mixture at temperature between 40 -60oc for approximately 6 12 hours.  The action of these enzymes is to breakdown the disulphide bonds that are present within the hair structure. Often dithiothreitol is used to aid pronase and protein kinase A, by decreasing the time taken to extract the opiates and their metabolites from the hair sample. Other enzymes used to breakdown the hair structure include glucuronidase and arylsulphitase. The disadvantage of using this method in comparison to other extraction techniques is that some of the sample may be altered prior to them being for the analytical tests. An example is the antibodies that are required for radio immunoassays, may be denatured by excessive heating required by this extraction process. 3.4.5Ã Digestion with Sodium Hydroxide. The use of alkaline solutions such as sodium hydroxide in digesting hair for the extraction of opiates has proven to be very compatible. This is because unlike acid solvents the constituents of the opiates are not hydrolysed along with the hair structure. An example of study conducted by Aldo Polettini et al found that in some case hair samples of heroin users, when digested in methanol hydrolysed the heroin to morphine. Whereas the hair sample that was digested in sodium hydroxide successfully hydrolysed the hair structure but did not alter the opiate and its constituents. [ref] Typical experiments digest hair samples in a 2M concentration of sodium hydroxide, set at a temperature of about 79Ã °c for 60minutes. 4. Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hair Samples 4.1Ã How GC/MS works Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry are two separate analytical techniques that are used together to quantitatively detect low concentrations of opiates. This analytical technique has exceptional specificity to the detecting in opiates in hair, with levels ranging from nanograms to picograms. 4.1.1Ã Gas Chromatography The gas chromatograph is a heated unit that has thin silica capillary columns, which have a cross linked silicone layer. The opiate sample is injected into an inlet and heated. The sample is heated until the boiling point of the last part of the opiate sample has been exceeded by approximately 20 Ãâ¹Ã ¡C. This is typically between 200 260 Ãâ¹Ã ¡C. This leads to the vaporisation of the opiate sample. The vaporised opiate sample will move to the beginning section of the silica capillaries. This is aided by an inert gas, typically helium. The temperature is somewhat reduced at the silica capillaries, typically 120Ãâ¹Ã ¡C. This will result in the condensation of the opiate sample. The reason for this condensation step is to ensure that all of the constituents of the opiate sample commence forward from a uniform point. The opiate molecule will start to disintegrate as it moves along the capillary column. This disintegration is caused by varied physiochemical interactions that occur with the different constituents of the opiate molecule, during the stationary phase. The time taken for each constituent or metabolite to move of the opiate sample to move through the capillary tube, from the point of injection is referred to as the retention time.  4.1.2Ã Mass Spectrometry Once the separate constituents of the opiate sample leave the capillary column, they begin to enter the mass spectrometer. The compartment between the gas chromatograph and the mass spectrometer is under high vacuum, which have quadrapoles that cover the end of the silica capillary. Now that the sample is moving along from the GC they are met by a beam of electrons, resulting in the sample to become ionised. The quadrapoles split the different constituents of the opiate samples, in relation to their electrical charge and their molecular weight. An electrical pulse is generated as the ion detector acts on the charged opiate constituents. This is all recorded on to library computer, which generates a spectrum of the opiate constituents behaviour within the mass spectrometer.  A Typical GC/MS A capillary tube COMPUTER 4.2Ã A typical GC/MS procedure on hair samples of opiate abusers. 4.2.1Ã Typical GC Conditions The type of capillary column used to quantification of the opiates is a HP 5MS, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane, with dimensions of 30m x 0.25m x 0.25Ã µm film thickness. The temperature of the inlet is set to 230Ã °c. The inert gas used was 99.999% helium, which flows at a rate of 1ml/min. The temperature of the oven is held at 150Ã °c for 1 minute. The GC is then programmed to increase the temperature in the following increments.  4.2.2Ã Mass spectrometry Conditions The mass detector was set up to operate at voltage of 70eV. The temperature at the quadrupol
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
In this essay, I will be examining some of the symbols in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem, 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.'; Symbols were very important in this poem. Without the symbols, 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'; would be simply a poem about an old mariner who is telling a story about killing a bird to a guest at a wedding. Of course, anyone who reads the poem can see that there is more to it than just a simple telling of a story. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first symbol in the poem is the wedding that the guest and the Mariner are at. This is a highly significant detail, because Coleridge could have made the story telling take place at any setting, but he chose a wedding. Why? A wedding is a very religious, very happy occasion. Weddings in and of themselves symbolize new beginnings and happiness. The reason that Coleridge decided to have this horrid tale told at a wedding could be for any number of reasons. I feel that the setting was chosen because of the new beginnings implied. As the Mariner tells his tale, the guest is held captive and when the story is done, the guest becomes essentially a new man and goes off to live the rest of his life. Had the tale taken place at a funeral, the heavy feeling of ending would have destroyed the symbolism of new beginnings. Ending of life, of happiness, of everything. If this had happened, then the fact that he rose the next day would not have been as significant. Therefore , the wedding is a very important symbol throughout the poem. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The albatross is another significant symbol throughout the poem. It first appears in the first section of the poem, and it is a symbol of good omen for the sailors. The albatross is a white bird, which is probably the reason why many Christians of the time saw it as a holy symbol, which made it a good omen. In this poem, the albatross symbolizes good fortune. When the Mariner kills the albatross, for absolutely no reason, the good fortune that has come upon the ship leaves. Symbolically, the Mariner did not kill a simple seabird, but an omen of good fortune and luck, which is why all of the bad things happen to the sailors and the Mariner. The albatross goes from being a symbol of god fortune to one of guilt when it is hung around the Mariner's neck as a sign of what he has done. 'Instead of the cross, the Albatross About my neck was hung.'; Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (ln. 142-43) This macabr... ... albatross, the blood that the Mariner sucks in order to announce the ship, the game between Death and Life-In-Death, the penance that the Mariner serves, and the cyclic nature of the poem are only a few of the symbols that add meaning and depth to the poem. If it were not for the symbols, the poem would simply be the story of a Mariner telling his tale to a hypnotized wedding guest, and then the poem would have no meaning to anyone. As it is, 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'; is a poem with great depth and meaning, with a lesson that can apply to everyone. When reading this poem, the reader can feel much like the wedding guest, entranced and hypnotized. This is because of the symbols. Even if the reader of the poem does not consciously perceive the symbols in the verse, the subconscious mind will catch them and understand the intrinsic meaning. The symbols in 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner are therefore the part of the poem that makes it so intense. Works Cited Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. In Seven Parts" (1817 text) in Samuel Taylor Coleridge: A Critical Edition of the Major Works. Ed. H J. Jackson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Touch, The Feel of Hemp-- The Fiber of Our Lives Imagine how useful a Swiss Army Knife with more than 2500 functions would be if it was compact enough to be manageable. And imagine that this Ã¢â¬Å"knifeÃ¢â¬ could help solve some very important problems that plague our environment as well as our society. Now think if the production of this tool was to be banned by the government. There would have to be some very strong reasons for the government to deny this extremely useful product to the people it governs. If the reasons for this interdiction were not very strong it would be absurd to think that the ban would last for an extended period of time. Well some people will be surprised to know that this very injustice is happening as we speak right here in our wonderful United States of America. The injustice I am describing is our governments ban on the cultivation of the hemp plant in our country. In this article I hope to inform the uninformed and reinform the misinformed on the subject of the hemp plant and how it would benefit us to encourage its widespread production. Industrial hemp is only a cousin of the drug producing plant, marijuana, but as far as the government is concerned they are the same things. Even though there is no chance a person could get high from smoking hemp, the government still prohibits its growth. Hemp does contain some THC, the chemical in pot that makes you high, but only a trace amount. To get the same buzz that a person would get from smoking one marijuana cigarette you would have to smoke twenty or thirty rolled from hemp and you would have to do in about the same amount of time. Common sense tells us that smoking this much of anything in a short amount of time would make you sick. If you smoke some industrial hemp you will only get a headache, and if you smoke more you will only get a bigger headache. The government has the same reason for the banning marijuana as they do for the ban on hemp, when hemp only contains trace amounts of the intoxicants that makes it illegal. Hemp can be compared to non-alcoholic beer, nut meg, cough syrup and mouthwash. NA beer and mouthwash contain alcohol, but nobody drinks them to get drunk. Nutmeg and cough syrup contain some psychoactive substances, but nobody uses these common products to get high.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Julius Caesar, Mark Antony pleads with his Ã¢â¬Å"Friends, Romans (and) countrymenÃ¢â¬ to lend him their ears in an effort to exonerate Caesar from false charges laid against him. The three main conspirators in CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, Brutus, Casca and Cassius portrayed Caesar as an ambitious tyrant to the Roman people. After Caesar was unjustly killed by his friends and comrades, the crowd was persuaded to believe that his death was necessary for the good of the republic. However, AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s oration cleverly manipulates the crowd through the use of pathetic appeals, especially enargeia, into rebelling against the assassins and mourning the death of Caesar. CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s untimely and unnecessary death created a unique rhetorical moment that Marc Antony seized. Bitzer states in his article Ã¢â¬Å"The Rhetorical SituationÃ¢â¬ that Ã¢â¬Å"a particular discourse comes into existence because of some specific condition or situation which invites utteranceÃ¢â¬ (Bitzer 41). According to the assassins, CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s murder was necessary for the good of all the Roman citizens, who unquestioningly believed BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s accusations that Caesar was ambitious and unfit to govern Rome. Marc Antony used his speech to win back the citizens and unite them in grief and outrage at CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. One of Marc AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives as he ascended to the pulpit was to refute the claims of CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt of ambition: Ã¢â¬Å"I thrice presented him a kingly crown, / Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? / Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; / And, sure, he is an honourable man. / I speak not to disprove what Brutus spokeÃ¢ â¬ (3.2.98-102). He reminded the public that Caesar had been offered the opportunity to be crowned King of Rome three times, and each time Caesar had refused it... ...r the name of the slain leader and managed to sway public opinion from one extreme to another. His words cause the angry mob to scour the streets of Rome for anyone who took part in his murder. His pathetic appeals to his friends, Romans and countrymen incited them to become an enraged mob to avenge CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death. His words display the assassinÃ¢â¬â¢s malicious actions for what they were and honor the memory of Caesar. Works Cited Bitzer, Lloyd F. "The Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric (1968): 39-48. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. "Chapter 6: Ethical Proof : Arguments From Character." Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. New York: Pearson Longmann, 2004. 163-203. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. "Chapter 7: Pathetic Proof : Passionate Appeals." Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. New York: Pearson Longmann, 2004. 205-219.