Wednesday, December 25, 2019
The most cost effective interventions for adults with anxiety disorder appears to be individual forms of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The mean total societal costs were lower for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as compared to Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Apeldoorn et al, 2014). In particular, self-help books are cost effective compared with other forms of treatment options. Drugs and group based psychological interventions does not appear to be specifically cost effective compared to other treatment options with the exception of a drug known as phenelzine, which was among the most cost effective drug. Some of the least cost effective options areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A variety of interventions such as anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and combination therapies included were not considered in the economic analysis. Benzodiazepines is a drug that cannot be used longer than 2 to 4 weeks to treat anxiety. Clinical evidence on anticonvulsants and combination therapies had an overall low quality and was particular limited. Due to these reasons, the inclusion of these interventions in the analysis would not have significant implications for decision making. A significant limitation of the economic analysis was the poor quality of the recurrence of symptoms data used because of the lack of full bodied evidence of comparative risk of relapse between psychological and pharmacological interventions. Besides, the lack of intervention specific data, the economic model supposed one common risk of relapse employed to all pharmacological interventions and one common risk of relapse across all psychological ones. However, the evidence suggest that in contrast to pharmacological interventions, which has a relatively high relapse risk at six months of maintenance treatment, the psychological interventions is well maintained after end of treatment. Besides, for the economic mod el, the mean probabilities ofShow MoreRelatedBehavioral Therapies : Cognitive Behavioral Therapy1752 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFrom the lens of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, an integrated mix of both cognitive and behavioral approaches is best suited the treatment of clients. All the approaches under Cognitive Behavioral Therapy require several different attributes. Some of them being; the need for a positive working relationship between client and therapist, the belief that distress is a cognitive process, treatment is a focus in changing cognitions to create positive change in mood or behavior. Changing irrationalRead MoreBehavioral Therapy And Cognitive Therapy869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespaper, I will compare and contrast Group Therapy and Cognitive therapy, more specifically, dialectical behavioral therapy, and the differences between assessment types that clinicians use to determine a diagnosis and therapy that would best benefit their client. In the second part of my paper, I wi ll discuss and address different considerations in which a therapist should make in order to provide a safe and effectively therapeutic environment. Though therapy is a largely utilized form of mental healthRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy2168 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesBackground Developed in the mid 1960s by Aaron Beck, the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model theorizes that the interpretation of both external and internal events is biased, and can tap unhealthy underlying beliefs that potentially lead to emotional distress (Beck, 2005). Over the years CBT has accumulated an impressive track record in the treatment of a variety of mood disorders. In 1985, a review of 220 studies using CBT in the treatment of depression concluded that 91% supported the modelRead MoreCognitive Psychology : Cognitive Behavioral Therapy1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCognitive Behavioral Therapy Djiedjorm Doe (Dede) Middlesex Community College Cognitive behavioral therapy, commonly known as CBT, is a systematic process by which we learn to change our negative thought into more positive ones. CBT is a combination of two types of therapy, cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. cognition is our thought, so cognitive behavioral therapy combines working with our thought process and changing our behavior at the same time. Cognitive behavioral therapistsRead MoreCognitive Psychology : Cognitive Behavioral Therapy1502 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCognitive Behavioral Therapy, in its most modern form, was developed in 1960 by Aaron T. Beck. However, CBT has an interesting history dating back to the 1920s in the United States and even earlier in other parts of the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Precursors of certain fundamental aspects of CBT have been identified in various ancient philosophical traditions, particularly Stoicism. Stoic philosophers, particularly Epictetus, believed logic could be used to identify and discard false beliefs that lead to destructiveRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy And Narrative Therapy1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgoing on in his every day life. The two that we have chosen are Cognitive-behavioral therapy and Narrative therapy. We will look into both of these and also as we do that we will find out what the role of the social worker is in both cases. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help you notice the discouraging thoughts that make you feel bad. These thoughts are sometimes called irrational or automatic thoughts. Using Cognitive-behavioral therapy you can learn to stop these thoughts and replace them with helpfulRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Therapy And Narrative Therapy1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgoing on in his every day life. The two that we have chosen are Cognitive-behavioral therapy and Narrative therapy. We will look into both of these and also as we do that we will find out what the role of the social worker is in both cases. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help you notice the discouraging thoughts that make you feel bad. These thoughts are sometimes called irrational or automatic thoughts. Using Cognitive-behavioral therapy you can learn to stop these thoughts and replace them with helpfulRead MoreCognitive Behavioral And Behavioral Family Therapy2903 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Week 11 Assignment: Signature Assignment: Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy Rayon L. Walton Nortcentral University One of the most effective components of MFT is Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy (CBFT). CBFT incorporates cognitive processes that affect behavior and applies it to the therapeutic process of clients. The foundational principles of CBFT stem from behavioral concepts that were impacted by issues that affected clients such as phobias, anxiety and parenting deficiencies;Read MoreCognitive Therapies And Behavioral Therapy982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCognitive behavioral therapy, on the contrary, utilizes directive consulting tools to control and guide its patients. These include such things as asking questions, interpreting, and providing direction to a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and emotions. Ã¢â¬Å"Aaron Beck developed cognitive therapy, an approach that focuses on recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs into more realistic and constructive thoughts and beliefsÃ¢â¬ (Erford, 2014). It is believed that cognitive behavioral therapyRead MoreCognitive Psycholo gy : Cognitive Behavioral Therapy1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy is a school of psychotherapy that intends to assist individuals with conquering their emotional issues. A focal idea in CBT is that you feel the way you think. Therefore, CBT focuses on the fact that you can live all the more cheerfully and effectively in you begin thinking with a better mindset. CBT urges you to comprehend that you re thought process or beliefs lie between the occasion and your definitive sentiments and activities. The
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Postpartum Profiles Convalescent leave after delivery will be determined by the attending physician. This will normally be for 42 days. Convalescent leave after a termination of pregnancy (for example, miscarriage) will be determined on an individual basis. Prior to commencing convalescent leave, postpartum Soldiers will be issued a temporary profile for 45 days. If the soldier decides to return early, the temporary profile remains in effect. Soldiers will receive clearance from the profiling officer prior to returning to duty. Soldiers are exempt from the APFT and from record weigh-in for 180 days following the termination of a pregnancy. After receiving clearance to resume physical fitness training, they are expected to useÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Commanders will ensure that all officials and supervisors support the ASAP. The ASAP participation is mandatory for all Soldiers who are command referred and subsequently enrolled.Failure to attend a mandatory counseling session may constitute a violation of Article 86 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). Processing Separation Soldiers who fail to participate adequately in or to respond successfully to rehabilitation will be processed for administrative separation and not be provided another opportunity for rehabilitation except under the most extraordinary circumstances, as determined by the clinical director (CD) in consultation with the unit commander. In addition to existing separation policies for alcohol or other drug abuse rehabilitation failures, Soldiers with a subsequent alcohol or drug-related incident of misconduct at any time during the 12-month period following successful completion of the ASAP or during the 12-month period following removal from the program, for any reason, will be processed for separation as an alcohol or drug abuse rehabilitation failure. Ensure that the first general officer (GO) in the chain of command with a judge advocate or legal advisor receives the appropriate information on drug positive Soldiers from the ASAP and makes the retention decision. Alcohol Policies Alcohol abuse and resulting misconduct
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Describe about the Contract Law Dictates for Development Corporation. Answer: The general principle of contract law dictates that when parties enter into a contract they are obligated and bound to effectively perform the contract within the agreed terms and conditions in the contract. It is worth noting that construction contracts have gained local notoriety in litigation because of delays that are always accompanied by excuses from the contractors. It is thus submitted that failure to perform a contract within the stipulated and agreed schedule attracts significant liability as was seen in Jerry Bennett Masonry, Inc. v. Crossland Constr.Co. (2005), where a subcontractor did not adequately provide for labor for a construction thereby causing a delay in the construction and the courts upheld delay damages against the company. Marina Construction Limited was notified of all the structural defects with the building in the contract as stated in the facts and therefore the delay was one that ought to have been foreseen before agreeing to the terms of the contract and formation of the contract. The delay can thus be termed as one that is an inexcusable delay which is defined as a delay caused by the fault or neglect of the contractor and the owner is entitled to a claim for damages. (Nathan, Lee, and Henry, 2014) Marina Construction Limited (MCL) is under a contractual obligation to perform the contract according to the agreed terms. However, in cases of delay in the performance of contracts the Western Australia Supreme court has held that a detailed notice of any such delay must be served to the other party. (CMA Assets Pty Ltd v John Holland Pty Ltd, 2015) It is not in dispute that MCL provided a notice to the principal in this case albeit it was orally made, the notice can be held to have been given out of time. In Australian Development Corporation (ADC) v White Constructions (1996) it was held that a notice of extension of time must be given within reasonable time to allow the principal take any remedial action or adjustments as to any adjustments. The notice by MCL was only served after the article in the newspaper was posted yet it was within the knowledge of the directors that they could not complete the contract as stipulated in the contract. It is imperative to note that a notice is required even where the contract has not provided for an extension clause. The university can claim liquidated damages if the contract had a liquidated damage clause. (J-Corp Pty Ltd v Mladenis (J-Corp), 2010) The liquidated damage clause will spare the university tedious endeavors calculating the amount of damages compensable. (Boucaut Bay Co Ltd v Commonwealth, 1927) On the other hand, the absence of a liquidated damage clause in a contract will not entitle the contractor to escape liability for delay damages to the contractor. The university can thus recover actual damages without the liquidated damage clause that includes lost profits from the admission of the students and rental charges and interests. The South Carolina Supreme Court affirmed that loss profits can be awarded where the owner undertakes to prove with a reasonable degree of certainty the amount of loss profits. (South Carolina Federal Savings Bank v. Thornton-Crosby, 1992) In regards to the $500,000 that the university had paid to MCl, the university can claim for the restitution of the funds that serves to protect it from unjust enrichment. Conversely, the courts have held in Fibrosa Spolka Akcyjna v Fairburn Lawson Combe Barbour Ltd (1943) that a party that had pre-paid some amounts of money for the performance of the contract could recover it after the contract had been frustrated. It is in fact submitted that the amount paid by the university should not have been given to MCL as this was rewarding them for their breach. 2. Tom, Jane Co (TJC) Firm was under the obligation to perform their duties in a professional manner. In the conduct of their duties and activities, the firm ought to have in mind the ripple effects of their actions on the persons they are serving. The famous dicta by Lord Atkin usefully asserts that one should take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions that are likely to injure a neighbor and further defines a neighbor as one who is like to be affected by the consequences of ones acts or omissions.( Donoghue v. Stevenson, 1932). Moreover, the Civil liability Act 2002 recognizes the tort of professional negligence. It is submitted to TJC that their acts and omissions have invited the tort of negligence precipitated by their omissions that displayed any degree of complacency and ineptitude in their audit business. For an act or omission to amount to negligence there are three essential elements that the plaintiff, in this case, will have to prove for the action to be successful. (Grant v Australian Knitting Mills, 1936) It is essential that a duty of care owed to the claimant who is the consumer must exist and consequently a breach of that duty. In addition, there must also be shown that indeed there was damage or injury caused as a consequence of the breach of that duty. Duty of care The neighbor principle has since widened the scope of the duty of care and it must not necessarily be a consumable product but the duty of care also extends to instances where one relies on information or advice from someone with a specific skill and knowledge. It follows that where such information is given negligently a tort of negligence action can arise. (L Shaddock Associates Pty Ltd v Parramatta City Council, 1981) TJC has a duty of care to its clients sunflower bank limited and they are expected to perform there duties with skill and competence. They have a duty to exercise reasonable skill and care whereby the standard of skill expected is of an ordinary skilled person practicing the same discipline. (Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee, 1957). It is imperative to note that the test for test for determining the standard of care will be that of an ordinary skill person highlighted above, in the same practice. This test is commonly referred to as the bolam test. A modern litmus that would determine the duty of care was espoused in Caparo Industries v Dickman (1990) where a tripartite approach is given by the court. First, it was established that the damages and consequence of the acts of the defendants must be reasonably foreseeable. (Kent v Griffiths, 2000) It is hence submitted that the fraud that TJC failed to detect was an omission which was foreseeable since there are several cases of fraud in the banking industry and practitioners should have an open eye on every issue. Secondly, it must be established that there was a legal relationship between the parties that can be regarded as a relationship of proximity that will expect a duty of care from the other party. (Home Office v Dorset Yacht Club, 1970) It goes without saying that a relationship of proximity is easily established between TJC which was an auditing firm and its clients sunflower bank. The duty of care is established because sunflower bank depended on the services of TJC. Thirdly, whether taking all circumstances into consideration it would be just reasonable and fair for the law to impose a duty. (Capital v Hampshire County Council ,1997) In TJC the court will not have to struggle with imposing any duty on TJC as the relationship between TJC and Sunflower bank is one that is created by a legal contract. Breach of duty Negligence occurs where the standard expected of a person falls below that of an ordinary skilled reasonable man. (Roe v Minister of Health, 1954). In deciding whether there has been a breach of the duty of care owed the courts will be guided and persuaded by four factors. First, the court will look at the degree of risk involved where it weighs the likelihood of the harm occurring. In Haley v London Electricity Board (1964) the court held that there was a commonly known risk that ought to have been foreseen. As noted above, the risk of fraud in banking is one that has gained prominence in this era and experts and professionals should put all measures to ensure that any such frauds are avoidable before they transpire. Secondly, the court will also look at the seriousness of the harm or damage suffered. It has been observed that at times the gravity of harm or damaged suffered is so is so low that courts will throw out such claims that seek to waste the courts time. (Paris v Stepney Borough Council, 1951) The gravity of the harm and loss suffered due the actions TJC cannot be downplayed by the court. The loss of $10 million is so grave and is likely to attract the attention of any ordinary court. Thirdly, the court will consider whether it would be reasonably practicable to take any precautions to avoid the harm or loss. (Latimer v AEC Ltd, 1952) The standard here will be that of a reasonably skilled person in the same practice. Fourthly, the courts will ask if the defendants action was of any useful social purpose. (Watt v Hertfordshire County Council, 1954). Infallibly, the actions of TJC served no useful purpose. Proof of breach If Sunflower bank is to bring a claim of negligence then as the plaintiffs they have to provide evidence that will connote that the defendant failed to exercise reasonable skill and care. Nevertheless where such evidence is not available and the facts of the case clearly speak for themselves the maxim of res ipsor loquitor will apply. (Scott v London St Katherine Dock Co, 1865) Damage caused by MCJs Breach of Duty It is submitted that Sunflower bank must show that the loss of the money would not have occurred but for the defendants negligent omissions. This is referred to the But for test that seeks to establish the causal link between the damage and the defendant. The test was authored in Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital (1968) where it was held that damage may at times occur not as a consequence of an act or omission of the defendant but the damage would have occurred anyway even if the or act omission did not transpire. It is advised that this argument resonates more with the defendants case and can be used as a defense. It has been argued that a foreseeable harm may at times occur in an unforeseeable manner which is an argument that TJC may borrow but such an argument does not hold water and liability will still attach as was held in Hughes v Lord Advocate (1963). However, a defendant will not be liable for a tort of negligence where the plaintiff has a weakness or a predisposition to such loss or damage. (Smith v Leech Brain Co, 1961) The foregoing submissions are brought to the attention of TJC and the three essential elements are fundamental for any claim of negligence to succeed. It is of particular significance to note that a claim of negligence is a civil action and the standard of proof is not equated to a criminal action which is beyond reasonable doubt. The standard of proof here is lower and is held to be on a balance of probability. TJC will not incur liability for negligence if they acted professionally and in a manner that has a general acceptance across Australia. (Civil Liability Act 2002 S 50(1) 3. It is apt to underscore the fact that the law of agency imposes a fiduciary duty on the agent. Succinctly, the agent is authorized by the principal to act on his behalf and this raises a legal relationship. The agency agreement between Will and farm fresh crystalizes their legal relationship. It should be borne in mind that an agent is authorized to do that which is authorized by the Principal or that which he can reasonably infer that the principal would desire him to perform. (International Harvester Company of Australia Pty Ltd v Carrigan's Hazledene Pastoral Co ,1958) From the onset it is submitted that pursuant to the agency agreement entered between farm fresh and Will, Will has an actual express authority to act on behalf of the principal. The authority is complete because it follows consent from the principal and there had been a written agreement that Will shall earn a 5% interest in the work that he will undertake on behalf of the principal. (Equiticorp Finance v BNZ(1993) Agency must not necessarily derive from consent of the principle but the law can infer that that an agency agreement existed where the parties were acting as such with the third party and the third party knew that the agent was acting for a known principal.. (Branwhite v Worcester Works Finance Ltd, 1969) It can be argued that Will had actual implied authority which while he was performing the transaction with the third party as he did not have express authority ,however, drawing from the following elements of an actual implied authority his acts were valid. First the agent was acting following the usual manner in which he performs his duties on behalf of the principal. This is referred to as the usual authority of an agent and it can be said that Will was acting in the usual way and his actions were incidental to the other acts that he has been performing for the principal. ( Hely-Hutchinson v Brayhead Ltd 1968) Second, the acts of the agent had gained the force of a custom and thus it is referred to as a customary authority. The leading case in the entire of the facts in issue and one that perhaps goes furthest is (Freeman Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal) (1964). In this case, H and K formed a company to develop property and the articles of the company gave provisions for managing directors but they had not been appointed. K went ahead and engaged a company to take on some constructions but later on the company claimed that k did not have authority. It was held that the K had ostensible authority to act. The courts have also espoused that the person who is held to have ostensible authority must also have an actual express authority to act. (Crabtree-Vickers Pty Ltd v Australian Direct Mail 1975) Will had ostensible authority to act because it was the usual way of business as the principal had not objected to his actions thereby the third party continued to transact with him and furthermore he had express authority derived from the agency agreement. A more persuasive position is that, despite the fact that Will had no express authority to transact with Dairy to Go, his actions were ratified by the principal. For ratification to be held have been undertaken the following must be proven; First, the agent whose act is sought to be ratified must have been acting on behalf of the principle. (Howard Smith Co Ltd v Varawa, 1910) This was well within the knowledge of Dairy to go and the business had gone on for a considerable period of months. Secondly, the principal must have been disclosed at the time of ratification. (Trident v McNeice Bros Pty Ltd, 1988) Dairy to go knew the principle because they were aware that Will was an agent of Farm fresh. The silence of the principal does not amount to ignorance nor does it mean that he has not ratified the act. It has been held that the principal can also ratify an action by silence or inaction. (Klement v Pencoal, 2000) This argument can be borrowed and applied by the principal of Farm fresh as he can say that he was aware of the business between his agent and Dairy to go and that is why he allowed it to continue up to then. This argument crystallizes the point that indeed there was a valid and enforceable contract between Farm fresh and Dairy to Go. Undoubtedly the evidence that has been demonstrated above manifestly shows that the contract that was undertaken between Dairy to Go and Farm fresh is one that legally binds both parties and is enforceable. Indeed it has been proven that Will had authority to act on behalf of the principal albeit his authority was not expressly authorized by the principal. It is submitted that an agent can not act on his own behalf if the third party is aware of the principal. (Irvine v Union Bank of Australia, 1877) To this extent, it can also be argued that Will is entitled to earn the 5%interest because as noted above there has been a mountain of evidence to show that indeed an agency relationship existed and that Wills principle is mandated to honor the agency contract. On the hand, the principal lacks a sufficient ground to terminate the agency contract because Will acted in a manner that was recognized by law so no penalties can be imposed on him. 4. Reflective Journal The law is the art of goodness and equity, but it is the inherent nature of justice that it will not make parties in a case equally exuberant at the end of the day. However, in the eyes of the law justice is deemed to be fairness. My reference to the above has been accentuated by the fact that the contractor in question one has to agree to suffer the loss a circumstance that the construction company does not sit well with but the law is ass as the positivist school of thought will put it. The research on this question has compelled me to learn that the law of contract requires that contracts are entirely honored. In addition, the construction professionals should be careful to undertake the contract as agreed. What was intriguing more is the fact that the contractors have to pay liquidated damages. I have had the privilege to bring to my attention from the research on this question that preferably, construction contracts must entail a liquidated damage clause that serves to prevent tedious endeavors trying to calculate the amount of damages to be paid. (Kean and Caletka, 2008) Nevertheless, the absence of a liquidated damages clause is not an implication that the owner cannot apply for liquidated damages. Suffice to say, contactors should follow the proper procedure where they have foreseen an expected delay and since the law is dynamic the contract can be extended but it is very unfortunate that the law does not favor the circumstances of the contractors case in question which is has a devastating effect on them. In regards to question two the research involved was quite educative and one that its importance I cannot undermine. Professionals have a duty of care to people who their acts or omissions are like to affect and they are required to reasonably foresee such acts or omissions so as not to cause any harm. (Donoghue v. Stevenson, 1932) The famous dictum of Lord Artkin is one that sinks deep into my heart as an aspiring profession. It is prudent that I mention that this research had a wealth of case law that was interesting and whose importance to my career I cannot undermine. The case laws that I have used exemplifies that the standard of skill and care required of the profession will not be measured beyond that of an ordinary skilled man in the same practice. It is worth mentioning that a breach duty of care is followed by award of damages to the party which indeed has a deterrent effect to professionals thereby sending a sound and striking message that those who are reckless in their duties will come face to face with the sharp claws of the application of the law of Negligence. Question three, on the other hand, bestows upon me sufficient knowledge to be able to track the path of the law of agency with competency. The authority that is vested on the agent by the principle is a fundamental one and the agents should be careful not to exceed their authority. In undertaking this question it was brought to my knowledge that an agent should only proceed with an act in which the principal himself is competent to undertake. It was rather interesting to note that despite Wills lack of express authority, the law derives other authorities that approved the actions of Will. Conversely, the ratification of previously unauthorized is a principle that I carried home and could not negate its importance. Indeed a principal can right the wrongs of the agent but only to the extent that the actions are not illegal. The ability of the law to fit the circumstances in favor of Will and Farm Fresh was in my view enticing. The flexibility of the law in this research is unimaginable. I was compelled to learn that actual implied authority if different from apparent authority. Implied authority is inferred from the usual conduct of the business and actions that are incidental to the normal conduct of the agent that is allowed by expressed authority. On the other hand, apparent authority is a conduct by the principal that has led the third to believe that the agent is acting on his behalf. References Australian Development Corporation (ADC) v White Constructions (1996) 12 BCL 317. 2. Barnett v Chelsea Kensington Hospital (1968)3 All ER 1068 Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) 1 WLR 582 Boucaut Bay Co Ltd v Commonwealth (1927) 40 CLR 98 Branwhite v Worcester Works Finance Ltd (1969) 1 AC 552. Caparo Industries v Dickman (1990) 2 AC 605 Capital v Hampshire County Council (1997)QB 1004 Civil Liability Act 2002 CMA Assets Pty Ltd v John Holland Pty Ltd (2015)WASC217 Crabtree-Vickers Pty Ltd v Australian Direct Mail (1975)133 CLR 72. Donoghue v. Stevenson (1932)UKHL 100 Equiticorp Finance v BNZ (1993) 32 NSWLR 50 Fibrosa Spolka Akcyjna v Fairburn Lawson Combe Barbour Ltd (1943) AC 32 Freeman Lockyer v Bucklehurst Park Properties (Mangal) Pty Ltd (1964)2 QB 480 Grant v Australian Knitting Mills (1936 )A.C. 562 Haley v London Electricity Board (1964) 3 WLR 479, Hely Hutchinson v Brayhead Limited (1968) 1 QB 549 Home Office v Dorset Yacht Club (1970) AC 1004 Howard Smith and Co Limited v Varawa (1910) HCA 30 Hughes v Lord Advocate (1963) A.C. 837 (H.L.). International Harvester Company of Australia Pty Ltd v Carrigan's Hazledene Pastoral Co (1958) 100 CLR 644 Irvine v Union Bank of Australia (1877) 2 App Cas 366 J-Corp Pty Ltd v Mladenis (J-Corp) (2010) 26 BCL 106 Jerry Bennett Masonry Inc. v. Crossland Constr.Co. (2005) 171 S.W.3d 81 Keane, P.J. and A.F. Caletka, ( 2008) Delay Analysis in Construction Contracts Kent v Griffiths (2000)2 WLR 1158 Klement v Pencoal  QCA 152 L Shaddock Associates Pty Ltd v Parramatta City Council  HCA 59 Latimer v AEC Ltd (1952) 2 All ER 449 Nathan C, Lee C and Henry P,( 2014) Resolving Problems and Disputes on Construction. Roe v Minister of Health  2 All ER 131 South Carolina Federal Savings Bank v. Thornton-Crosby (1992) SC 423 S.E.2d 114 Trident v McNeice Bros Pty Ltd (1988) HCA 44 Paris v Stepney Borough Council (1951) 1 All ER 42, Watt v Hertfordshire County Council (1954) 1 WLR 835
Monday, December 2, 2019
Effect of Online Education and Adult Education and Connection with John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s Pragmatism The principles and paradigm of education has changed dramatically. More and more people understand the importance of the education and want to receive good knowledge by means of attending a prestigious college at any age. Thus, it appears that adult education and online education as the innovative forms for learning are in demand.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Online Education and Pragmatism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main idea of this paper is to consider the effect of online education and adult education on the paradigm of the social learning structure, connect these forms of studying with John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s pragmatism and interpret the issue from a different philosophical perspective. Thus, online education is considered as the studying on the basis of the innovative technologies which take place on t he Internet and is based on the principles of individual distant learning. Adult education does not differ greatly from ordinary generally accepted classes with the differences that they are attended by adults and are aimed at expanding their school education or deepening it is a particular working sphere. Dewey was sure that there should be the contest between traditional education and progressive, like online and adult, as he used to say that Ã¢â¬Å"that the issue runs deeper than a mere contention between advocates of progressive education and traditional educationÃ¢â¬ and the attempts had to be taken Ã¢â¬Å"to resolve the dualism that ultimately divided and broke the spirit of the progressive education movementÃ¢â¬ (Schubert, 2006, p. 79). Therefore, it may be concluded that taking into account DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, the innovative education is to be in contrast with the traditional one until the specific steps are not taken. John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s pragmatism may be covered i n the following, If a theory makes no difference in educational endeavor, it must be artificial. The educational point of view enables one to envisage the philosophic problems where they arise and thrive, where acceptance or rejection makes a difference in practice. If we are willing to conceive education as the process of forming fundamental dispositions, intellectual and emotional, toward nature and fellow-men, philosophy may even be defined as the general theory of education (in Saito, 2006, p. 345).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interpretation of the Issue from a Different Philosophical Perspective One of the main ideas of the DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy is that education should be changed due to the changes in the society. The democratic relation to education should become a priority. Therefore, the online education and adult education are exactly what Dewey was talking about. Ho wever, it is possible to consider these types of education from other perspectives. Thus, Cavell is sure that the difference should be made via language and the education should speak to learners. The main difference from the DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s education is that Cavell offers to make difference in the form of teaching that may be used in online learning and adult education. Therefore, it should be stated that even though Dewey and Cavell wanted to apply different pragmatist theories, they wanted to make education different from traditional, to present innovative ideas which may be helpful in making a difference. The philosophies of Dewey and Cavell coincide as they are aimed at making difference, but they are also various as the pragmatism of Dewey is that he talks about education, while Cavell speaks to the learners. Online education and adult learning may apply to the theories of these scholars. Reference List Saito, N. (2006). Philosophy as Education and Education as Philosophy: Demo cracy and Education from Dewey to Cavell. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 40(3), 345-356. Schubert, W. H. (2006). Teaching John Dewey as a Utopian Pragmatist While Learning from My Students. Education Culture, 22(1), 78-83. This essay on Online Education and Pragmatism was written and submitted by user Dominick Kramer to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Some say diamonds are a girl's best friend my best Essays - Beauty Some say diamonds are a girl's best friend my best friend is make up. I started wearing makeup at the age of 10. You might be thinking "whoa that's a young age but as early as about the 4th grade I started getting acne scaring. I'm 18 now and have gotten comfortable. with makeup, I've used so many different brands and products that I know can decide if something is a good buy or not. Many people who are not regular make up wearers may struggle on what to buy as far as brand and quality; I am here to help. To some people makeup is like a foreign language. UN experienced makeup users usually make the mistake of buying a lot of low quality makeup product from the local grocery store instead of the mall. High end makeup in most cases is better than drugstore makeup. The qualities in high end makeup I appreciate are the foundation color ranges, color pigmentation of eye shadows and blushes and the photo quality. High end makeup is easily surpassing drug store make up. the first thing you want to look at when you are deciding which one to buy is the color range and accuracy. For women of color often time we have trouble matching ourselves to a foundation color. when you shop high end foundation Sephora has a range of brands that carry many different shades and brands. There are many high-end brands with a broad spectrum of colors in Sephora are Makeup Forever, Kat Von Lock It Foundation, Nars, Giorgio Armani, and many more. The shade and undertone of the foundation can be chosen just to fit you as well, which is very vital when you want the best fit. Often people get the right shade of make up with the wrong undertone and look like a red-hot pepper or an oom-pah Loompa. When shopping high end, there is usually a clerk or makeup artist there to advise you on what is best for your skin wither that be brand, shade or coverage. For example, I used to wear mac but I went into Sephora and I told t hem the issues I was having with my mac foundation so what they did was matched me with a quality foundation which in my case is Kat von D. The process in a high-end beauty store makes shopping very Hassel free and there are so many options that you're guaranteed to get what you need. Lip stick, eye shadows, and blush are all things that need to have good pigmentation to be good products. When you get high end makeup the pigments of the shades will be so rich that is will make your heart melt and your eyes water with joy. When the pigmentation is good it good little goes along way. By using more pigmented products you can use less each use because a little will go a long way. When you shop high end, you are liable to find a lot higher quality liquid lipsticks such as Kat von D, Stella, Laura Mercier, Burberry, Giorgio Armani, and many more. You will also find very pigmented eye shadows. A great benefit when you shop for high end shadows are a lot of times you can create your own eye shadow pallet by choosing your own eye shadow trays (Anastasia Beverly hills makes that and option and so does Sephora). I use urban decays' eye shadow pallets and I know that too faced has beautiful eyeshadow as well. When it comes to lipsticks I use kit von d's liquid lipstick, Seph ora's collection of lipstick, smash box lipstick and Anastasia Beverly hills lipstick.; all those lipsticks were creamy, did not dry my lips out at all, and lasted all day. So, in this case eyeshadow blushes and lipsticks are better off purchased in high end stores if you want the best quality. The last thing that is highly important thing is that high end makes up (when it's the right shade and blended) does not typically flash back. When you're out with your friends or a guy you always want to make sure that the foundation you purchase is good quality and doesn't flash
Saturday, November 23, 2019
2018-2019 LSAT Test Dates If you are registering for the LSAT in the United States, Canada, or overseas, you need to know the 2018-2019 LSAT test dates. The table lists the test dates, as well as when regular registration closes and score release dates where available. 2018-2019 LSAT Test Dates: North America Most of the dates in the table are open to all applicants. However, LSAT test dates marked with a ** are for Sabbath observers only. Those tests have been moved to a different day of the week for those unable to take the test on a Saturday for religious reasons. TheÃ LSAC, the organization that administers the test, has not released registration and score-release dates for all test dates as of March 2018. Those instances are noted as TBA. Test Date and Time Regular Registration Closes Score Release Dates Monday, June 11, 201812:30 p.m. Oct. 18, 2017 Jan. 4, 2018 Monday, July 23, 201812:30 p.m. Dec. 27, 2017 March 8 2018 Wednesday, Sept. 5, 20188:30 a.m. ** TBA TBA Saturday, Sept. 8, 2018 8:30 a.m. TBA TBA Saturday, Nov. 17, 20188:30 a.m. TBA TBA Monday, Nov. 19, 2018 8:30 a.m. ** TBA TBA Saturday, Jan. 26, 20198:30 a.m. TBA TBA Saturday, March 30, 20198:30 a.m. TBA TBA Monday, April 1, 2019 8:30 a.m. ** TBA TBA Monday, June 3, 201912:30 p.m. TBA TBA Monday, July 19, 20198:30 a.m. TBA TBA LSAT Overseas Test Dates You can also take the LSAT outside of North America. Check with theÃ LSACÃ for instructions test takers need to know, registration fees and dates, test times, and other frequently asked questions. Test Date and Time Locations Sunday, June 24, 2018 Australia and New Zealand Saturday, June 23, 2018 Europe, Middle East, and Africa Sunday, June 24, 2018(Asia) Asia Monday, June 11, 2018 South America, Central America, and Mexico Monday, July 23, 2018 South America, Central America, and Mexico Registration and Testing Help Before you register for a specific test date, familiarize yourself with importantÃ LSAT registrationÃ facts, including details like getting accommodations, testing under special circumstances, and test center locations. And, reviewÃ LSAT test-taking tipsÃ to learn information about the test itself such as test sections and scoring. Then sharpen your skills withÃ LSATÃ test practice, which will give you a quick LSAT quiz to test your mettle. You can register to take the LSAT by contacting the LSAC byÃ phone, via email, or through snail mail.Ã Future Plans TheÃ Princeton ReviewÃ calls the LSAT the dinosaur of graduate school admission exams (because) itÃ¢â¬â¢s still exclusively a paper-and-pencil test. So, youll still need to bring your No. 2s to take the exam, at least through the end of 2018. The Princeton Review also notes that the LSAC has started a pilot program, where volunteers take five 35-minute sections using a tablet. Participants do not receive LSAT scores, but they receive a $100 gift cards.Ã PowerScore, a test-preparation service, says that the initial test took place in the spring of 2017, but the LSAC is still working on instituting tablet-based testing. When computer testing is put in place, test takers will be able to take the exam on Andriod tablets, and some of the features on the test will include large text, high-contrast text, touch-and-hold delay, magnification gestures, color inversion, and color correction. LSAC also lists scratch paper as being provided, so it seems the stylus may not be the sole means of notation, says PowerScore.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Geology Week 2 DQ 1 - Essay Example This process enables creation of crustal material, thereby constituting this type of boundary. Transform plate boundary Ã¢â¬â Two tectonic plates move parallel to each other. They collide against each other during this movement. Earth disturbances occur for example earthquakes, leading to the formation of this boundary. Western and Eastern United States are a representation of active and passive continental margins (Rhodes & Perlman, 2001). In the light of plate tectonic theory, the Western continental margin is characterized by the occurrence of oceanic plates that result from the crashing activity of the continental edge. On the other hand, the Eastern United States continental margin is passive, meaning that it is not characterized by geological activities. Collision or subduction processes do not occur, and tectonic activity is therefore minimal (Rhodes & Perlman, 2001). As a result, extensive continental shelves emerge from erosion and weathering processes. The acceptance of plate tectonic theory based on magnetic anomalies and polar reversals followed studies and discoveries that evidenced the applicability of the theory. Historical and present continental distribution is attributed to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s magnetic field (Rhodes & Perlman, 2001). Rock formation processes and plate tectonic movements have been consistently studied and proved, shaping the present geological structure in the light of the plate tectonic
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
DQ6 - Essay Example I have seen the leadership using its resources to coach, mentor and train the employees, which is indeed a positive point. However sadly I have also witnessed severe criticism on the part of the leadership towards the employees which has basically discouraged them in an out and out fashion. These two aspects however run hand in hand within the organizational undertakings. The role of ethics in the workplace is of immense significance. The reason for the same is that ethical leadership would ask of the employees to give in their very best and in line with the organizational norms and procedures. Ethics would ask of the employees to be true to their morals and thus remain in line with their value systems and principles which are indeed very significant from the personality building regimes. Ethical undertakings would suggest that an organization knows how to make best use of its resources and that too within the prescribed limits of the society. The workplace would be seen in a very pragmatic way and thus the negativities would be done away with at the earliest by the people who hold some form of grudges against the same. It is a fact that an ethical workplace would see more people vying to join the organization than a workplace which does not manifest ethical behaviors and actions (Yukl 2006). Employee diversity is changing the workplace in the present times since this aspect has brought together people from different nooks and corners of the globe. The strengths of these people are being basically judged more than anything else. It does not really matter from where these people have been brought together for the sake of achieving organizational goals and objectives. What matters most is how these talented people give in their very best towards completion of the tasks that have already been envisaged by the leadership domains in the organization. Diversity has meant growth and development for the organization and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Jonathan Swift and Piers Paul Read Essay Cannibalism is the last taboo. In Alive and A Modest Proposal Jonathan Swift and Piers Paul Read approach the subject with completely different purposes in mind. What do you consider to be the purpose of each author, and say how he achieves this? A Modest Proposal is a scathing attack on the economic oppression of the Irish by the English. During Swifts lifetime tremendous suffering was caused by English practices in Ireland. However, it is incorrect to say that cannibalism is the theme of A Modest Proposal. Swift was a Protestant writer in Ireland at the time of The Great Potato Famine. The article is a clever satirical device to draw attention to the plight of the poor. He infiltrates the opposition, the rich Protestant landlords, in order to put their torturous ideas to ridicule. Swift attacks his own Protestant, English community by creating a narrator who considers himself a reasonable and compassionate character, but one who combines a repulsive anti-Catholic bigotry, with a modest proposal, that is, rather, a final solution: he, the narrator, advocates cannibalism as a means of countering Irish Catholic poverty abortion, and the high birth rate. The narrator, in a frighteningly rational and level-headed tone condemns the English for being inhumane, the Irish for being passive, the speaker for being morally blind, and the reader for accepting intolerable situations in the world around him; for this piece was accepted and believed by many, at the time. On the other hand, Piers Paul Read, in his biographical novel Alive, rather than indirectly giving answers to a problem, asks questions. He tells of the experiences of the survivors of an Andean plane crash in 1976, who, in the remoteness, and the harshness of their environment, the lack of a consumable source of food, and the quickening exhaustion of their own limited amounts of chocolate and wine, have no where to turn except, in their desperation, to eat the meat from their fellow, dead, company. They have only their planes wreckage as shelter, which has come down from 14,000 feet. Both literary pieces, although their purpose, style and audience are different, jolt the reader out of their complacency, and encourage them to think of things they thought werent necessary to be thought about! However, it is necessary to understand that the two texts have been written hundreds of years apart, and society, of course, has evolved. Swift has reached out across the religious and ethnic divide to champion the ignorant, impoverished Irish Catholics. The bigotry of Swifts narrative is so convincing and grotesque, that Swift himself is sometimes mistaken as his narrator, an anti-Catholic bigot! On the contrary, Swifts essay harshly attacks the Christian commitment of Irelands wealthy Protestant absentee landowners, and his unflattering cannibal is made in their image. P. P. Read meanwhile, attacks not the opposition, but gives a balanced and meaningful account of the plane crash and the tales that followed, and examines the human spirit to stay alive, and questions what is civilized and human. Yet, simultaneously, Read, almost in the opposite of Swift, advocates cannibalism. Read turns the views of cannibalism as a taboo on its head. Rather than associating it with savagery and being primitive and irrational, he questions logic, and seems to state that the ban is the primitive thing, that is not based on reason. In one paragraph alone, he writes, we grappled with emotions, and we did not think it wrong twice. While Swift attacks the Landlords by linking their greed to their devouring of the Irish Catholics, and satirizes cannibalism to the extent that it is no longer seen as ironic, only distasteful, Read, using a character Canessa, reasons cannibalism out. He talks of nourishment and energy, and of course, eventually wins his company. Their decision is based on logic and reason, and the ability to use these makes us civilized. Although I do not feel that Swifts narrators views are plausible, Read using a variety of effective techniques, convinces the reader. Swift shows how the English projected their own blame onto their victims- destitute Irish Catholics, that, Swift suggests, have been cannibalized by the rapacious greed of absentee landlords. Swift is hoping to shame them into being more compassionate. However, as what happened when I read it for the first time, because Swift and his narrator are so tightly intertwined, readers often emerge from their reading, confused, perhaps unable to take in the implausibility of his case.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
An earthquake is a major natural disaster which damages a lot of life and property as well as interrupts the socio economic growth of a particular geographic region. It causes shaking and ground rupture, landslides, avalanches, tsunami, soil liquefaction, floods, fires, etc. Both wildlife and human beings experience huge loss to their life and livelihood through earthquakes. Some deadliest earthquakes till the date; Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1556 Shaanxi earthquake: On 23rd January, 1556 at Shaanxi (China) worldÃ¢â¬â¢s worst quake took around 8 lakh lives with its 8.0Mw (Magnitude) vibration. More than 500 miles area damaged through it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Great Tangshan earthquake: On1976 July 28, China again experienced another horrific natural disaster of 7.7Mw shake which destroyed a lot of hard earned properties and around 7 lakh innocent lives. Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami: It was a historic and terrible mishap in India and 13 other countries. Around 3 lakh people lost their life and the tsunami caused by this accident was a threat to the whole world. Disaster management and safety tips for Earthquakes: The process of dealing with and avoiding the risks or hazards resulted through a disaster is defined as disaster management. Disaster management for earthquake is a continuing process. It starts with the warning and continues until the living victims becomes independent to carry-on their livelihood. Support from different levels like individuals, corporate houses (CSR), NGOs, Government disaster management cell or other philanthropic organizations helps a lot in reconstructing the society. The uncertainty of earthquake and the unavailability of immediate support form trained volunteers influences a common man to learn the basic disaster management strate... ...nto the damaged building instantly after the quake as the damaged or loosen parts of the concretes may fall down on you. 3. If you think your building is safe after the quake then check the electricity connection as well as the LPG pipe before using them. Also the water pipes may cause accidents. 4. Help other injured people and offer food, water or first-aid. Ask support from others in evacuating the injured people or distributing relief stuffs. Stress more on the infants, disable and old persons. 5. Inform the disaster management authorities about missing of your family member if you are finding them. Be calm if unfortunately one of your family members seriously injured or died during the mishap. Following the disaster management and safety techniques for earthquakes or any other critical natural disasters requires robust environment resource management planning.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
I have not had a member of my family dramatically saved by a revolutionary surgeon. I have not been influenced at a young age by a caring GP. I have not dreamt of being a doctor for my entire life, nor played doctors and nurses as a child. These things often belong to television medical dramas, not real life. And real life is what I have experienced. I have seen friends and colleagues so tired from nights of endless study that they answer the ward phone Ã¢â¬Å"Countdown Dunedin, Patricia hereÃ¢â¬ (their part time job from over ten years ago). I have seen them despair at not only not knowing what to do for their favourite patient, but not knowing what to do for the 15 other patients on their list for the day. Everyday I witness their frustration at not being able to either give their full attention to a patient, disappointment at not being able to convey the consequences of chronic medication non-compliance and the general day to day stresses of hospital life compounded with their medical inexperience. Yet I state Ã¢â¬â I want to be a doctor. Over the past five years I have been a clinical pharmacist. I am a good pharmacist Ã¢â¬â I have sound knowledge in pharmaceutics and pharmacology, I have had wonderful relationships with health professionals of all ages and specialties and I take pride in my work and ability to relate to patients. I have risen through staff structure to be a clinical and department team leader, as well as being an active member of various hospital and national health groups Ã¢â¬â roles I enjoy due to their pro-active healthcare approach. One part of my job involves teaching and working closely with medical staff. Some have said to me Ã¢â¬Å"I bet you hate having to lecture us about medicines all the timeÃ¢â¬ , but what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realise is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s often one of the best parts of my job. Through them I get to hear about the complications and the challenges that face them everyday and I love to hear their stories. At the moment I feel like I am close, but yet so far, to doing what I really love. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get me wrong, pharmacy provides an invaluable service to patients as well as the healthcare team in total, and I am very proud to be a part of it. But when IÃ¢â¬â¢m constantly going the extra mile to find out more about a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, the cause, the pathology, the presentation Ã¢â¬â things a pharmacist doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily need to know Ã¢â¬â I realise that this is really where my passion lies. The clues that blood results and other laboratory findings can give as well as the procedures and techniques that are used, continue to intrigue me. But most importantly, bringing all of these aspects together and having the knowledge, skill and belief that you can improve your patientÃ¢â¬â¢s well being for perhaps only a few days, is the most appealing part of medicine to me. I have had a taste of the satisfaction that can come from improving a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition in a few instances, and knowing that I had a part in it provided me with a Ã¢â¬Å"highÃ¢â¬ for days. When I think of what made it enjoyable, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the medicine review or simply even the inclusion in the medical team. It was the amount I learnt, combined with the treatment process and responsibility of a decision and then the resulting gratitude from the patient and their family Ã¢â¬â all things that I will never forget. And while I know there will be many hard days ahead, the constant challenge and the feeling of fulfilment from the patients you may be able to make an impact on (or may make an impact on you) will be my driving force to continue to learn and relish coming back day after day. This is not a decision I have made lightly. The sensible and logical side of me knows that remaining a pharmacist will give me a comfortable life and that medical school is just the start of life-long study, late nights and daily second-guessing. But I also know that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t truly succeed in a position where you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t passionate about your work. Medicine is something I have been interested in for years and I have continued to seek more from it, despite initial setbacks and alternative career choices. I have experienced hospital life as well as the real world and have spoken with Ã¢â¬Å"matureÃ¢â¬ house surgeons who have been in a similar position to mine and who re-iterate the daily struggles mentioned. But they also state that they would do it all over again for the satisfaction they get from their job. I want that. And I believe I would do it well.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Who? | Where + When? | What? | Chapter I| Director, students, Henry Foster, Lenina| Central London Hatchery and Conditioning CentreYear A. F. 632| Ã¢â¬â World StateÃ¢â¬â¢s motto: Ã¢â¬ËCommunity, Identity StabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning (D. H. C. shows some new arrived students the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning CentreÃ¢â¬â> introduces them to the principles of the mass production of humans- There are groups of Ã¢â¬ËalphaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbetaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËgammaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËdeltaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËepsilonÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Work with the Ã¢â¬ËBokanovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s ProcessÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â> one of the major instruments of social stability Ã¢â¬â Mr Foster, an avid employee, tells the students more about the Centre- The embryos are prepared for their later life and work | Chapter II| Director, students, infants, nurses| Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre (Infant-Nurseries Ã¢â¬â Neo-Pavlovian Conditi oning Rooms)| Ã¢â¬â The tour continues in the Infant Nurseries-Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning Rooms Ã¢â¬âExample of conditioning: low-caste babies are offered books and flowers which they want to reach; suddenly there are loud frightening sirens and the babies get a slight electric shock Ã¢â¬â> they should learn to associate books and flowers with negative experiencesÃ¢â¬â> lower caste humans are not supposed to read because it is a waste of time and flowers are useless- The Director explains hypnopaedia (sleep-teaching) Ã¢â¬â> children listen to tapes that permanently repeat slogans about behaviour and attitudes during their sleeps| Chapter III| Director, students, Mustapha Mond, Henry Foster, Lenina, Fanny, Bernard Marx| Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre (outside in the garden), the lift, GirlÃ¢â¬â¢s Dressing-Room| Ã¢â¬â In the garden the students observe children playing erotic games -> they are encouraged to play sexual games-The Directo r tells the group about the suppression of erotic games in former times -> it is incredible to the students- Mustapha Mond, one of the ten rulers, appears and gives a lecture on history -> Ã¢â¬Å"history is bunkÃ¢â¬ a explains why it was necessary to change the society-> Lenina Crowne and her friend Fanny Crowne talk about men and LeninaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Bernard Marx, who is said to be strange Ã¢â¬â Bernard Marx overhears Henry Foster talking with a friend about Lenina -> dislikes the way they talk about women as if they were meat| Chapter IV| Lenina, Bernard, Mr Helmholtz Watson| The lift, Propaganda House, BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment| Ã¢â¬â Lenina and Bernard meet in a rowded lift and Lenina asks him about their plan to go to the Savage Reservation in New Mexico; Bernard feels embarrassed about that Ã¢â¬â Bernard is uncertain about Lenina because on the one hand she wants to go on holiday with him and on the other hand she spends much time with Henry Fos ter- Bernard feels to be an outsider Ã¢â¬âBernard and his friend Mr Helmholtz Watson meetÃ¢â¬â> both are an Ã¢â¬Ëalpha-plusÃ¢â¬â¢ and both feel like individuals and for this reason like outsiders | Chapter V| Lenina, Henry, Bernard, other participants,| Helicopter, a club, HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment, Fordson Community Singery| Part 1:- Lenina and Henry fly with the helicopter over the Slough Crematorium where corpses are burnt to recover phosphorus which is used as a fertilizer Ã¢â¬â> even dead people are useful for the society- They talk about how it is like to be an Ã¢â¬ËEpsilonÃ¢â¬â¢ and come to the conclusion that everyone is happy- In the evening they dine and go to a club together; after that they have sex in HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment- Ã¢â¬ËSomaÃ¢â¬â¢ is served with the coffee after mealÃ¢â¬â> indispensable for the people in the state, otherwise they canÃ¢â¬â¢t feel happyPart 2:- Bernard takes part in a Solidarity Service with eleven other peopl eÃ¢â¬â> they take Ã¢â¬ËsomaÃ¢â¬â¢, sing hymns and wait for the coming of the Ã¢â¬ËGreater BeingÃ¢â¬â¢-While everyone there enjoys it as a feeling of unity, Bernard feels very isolated| Chapter VI| Bernard, Lenina, Fanny, Director, Helmholtz, a warden| Helicopter, BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment, DirectorÃ¢â¬â¢s room, Savage Reservation| Part 1:- Bernard go to the WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Heavyweight Wrestling Championships in Amsterdam together Ã¢â¬â They have different ideas of happinessÃ¢â¬â> Lenina wants to do sports and have fun with Ã¢â¬ËsomaÃ¢â¬â¢, he prefers being alone with her, avoids crowds and refuses Ã¢â¬ËsomaÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Bernard wants to be happy in his own individual way and not Ã¢â¬Å"enslaved by his conditioningÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â When Bernard realizes that Lenina does not understand him, he takes Ã¢â¬ËsomaÃ¢â¬â¢ and sleeps with herPart 2:- Bernard goes to the D. H. C. to get his permission to enter the Savage Reservation Ã¢â¬â
Thursday, November 7, 2019
History Research Paper Sample History Research Paper Sample Research paper: History (Memoir value and problem as a way of recount) Introduction Recounting the past is an important aspect of human survival in finding answers and solutions to different problems. As such, it is important that humans consider the past as they chart their way forward as to avoid repeating past mistakes in order build a conceivable future, in all aspects of human lives, be it social, political, or economic aspects. This essay focuses on two memoirs by two female writers that recount past activities that shaped human destiny significantly. The memoirs are Wild Swan by, Jung Chang, and Testament of Youth by Vera Britain. The Wild Swan memoir describes the Cultural Revolution that took place in China in a narrative that compares the experiences of her grandmother, her mother, and hers to explain ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation into the modern world. In the Testament of Youth memoir, Brittain focuses on the effects of the First World War on the British middle class citizens. It further highlights the plight of women during, after the war, and in a compa ssionate manner that appeals to all. The memoir is given in a narrative manner that recounts the harsh experiences of Brittain that pushed her into writing the memoir as a way of expressing herself. The two memoirs are important historical aspects that reveals the past in a captivating manner and are valuable in solving current and future problems that affect humanity. Findings Wild swan memoir by Jung Chang was first published in 1991, whereby, Chang notes that the wild swan event changed his life significantly considering that itÃ¢â¬â¢s the book that led him into being a writer. Chang had for long dreamt of being a writer, but his dreams had been quashed by the tyrannical rule of Mao, which threatened the lives of many writers who suffered in endless political persecutions. ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s memoir is a story of three generations of the 20th century China highlighting the then Presidents MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s impact of his tyrannical rule in China, and touching on the experiences of females in the modern world. Chang describes the life of her grandmother, who was a warlord concubine; the struggles that her mother went through as a young idealistic communist, and about the ordeals, her parents went through during the Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s failures led ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s parents into opposing the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. They were consequently targeted together with other opposing high-ranking officials during the revolution. The criticizing of Mao by ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s father made ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s family be exposed to retaliation from MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters. This was further followed by her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment, and her family was forced to leave home. All this made Chang lose the respect she had for Mao as she writes, to the extent that when Mao died, she had to hide her head under the shoulder of another student to pretend that she was grieving. Chang left to study in Britain in 1978 on a government scholarship, where she found life there interesting to the extent that she came to love her new country so much, and especially its diverge culture. The publication the first book Wild Swan made Chang a celebrity due to her unique style of using a personal description of the lives of three generations of Chinese women as a way of highlighting the many changes her country went through that proved extremely successful. The relation of these three stories starts with ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother being sold as a concubine to a BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s police chief in order to increase her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s power and status in their society. Chang describes her grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s early life, her time as the concubine of a warlord, and the escape with her baby daughter following the death of her husband. This was then followed by the marriage of ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s mother to a reputable middle class doctor, making it possible for Chang to give a vivi d picture of the traditional china, in addition to the place of women in the society before the communist revolution took place. The testament of youth memoir describes the impact that the First World War had on the middle class citizens in Britain. The memoir shows the impacts of this war that prolonged into post war years, hence its huge impacts on the citizens. The memoir is further a kind of feminist literature due to their depiction of pioneer women forging their way into independent careers on a society that was sluggishly forbearing of learned women. The memoirs start with Brittains plans of getting into Oxford University, and her love life with Roland Leighton, who was a friend to her brother. The narrative goes through the deaths of her fiancÃ ©e brother and her two closest male friends during the First World War. It ends with Brittain meeting her Husband and the ensuing marriage in 1925. Brittain was left physically exhausted and grief striken, yet amidst the entire trauma, an idea was planted in Brittains mind of immortalizing her story in a book. The idea of the book came later to be the testament of the youth, which is one of the most celebrated memoirs of the twentieth century. The words in these memoirs appear to pour out of her, a strong mixture of both loss and fury that are reinforced by intelligence and pacifist beliefs. As a woman, Brittain was able to account the female experiences in the war with an instinctive dynamism. The literary memorialization of world war one was a preserve of the male until the testament of the youth was derived. Brittain was thus able to balance emotional resonance with intellectual precision. She was able to relay her own story that of being the daughter of the proprietor of a provincial paper factory, and then as a young woman in the path towards making sense of the personal effects that were wrecked by war. By so doing, she was able to lay out her political beliefs. According to the memoirs, she was able to learn that no one can live in isolation form public events. Having grown up in a conservative middle class family, she is able to write boldly concerning her own ambitions as a means of progressing her life and those of other women, despite the traditional ideas by her parents that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s place belongs in the home. What gives BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s memoirs such a great influence is the refusal by Brittain to cling on to accepted norms that continue to diminish the place of a woman in the society. The memoir weaves around political issues into her personal life that makes BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s memoir so fascinating. This is because any person does not have to be interested in pacifism or feminism to understand BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. The powerful memoir, however, did not come without experiencing of personal by Brittain. Though she belived thaty she would never be find any joy of being in a relationship, she did eventually marry George Caltin, a philosopher which following a courtship that was instigated by a letter. Writing of the testament of youth, together with its publication not only affected Brittain, but also had wider implications. Her husband had to cope reading the emotional nostalgic writing of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ former lover. The deaths of her closest friends and father forced Brittain to shoulder the weight if this tragedy. She consequently poured out her energies into campaigning against colonialism, apartheid, and nuclear proliferation. BritttainÃ¢â¬â¢s political activism had a lasting impact on her daughter, in that; she led the opposition against the invasion of Iraq in the House of Lords in 2003. Value Following the revolution, the position of women in the society rose significantly with ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s mother being a civil servant and later the wife of an official. Chang, therefore, gives a historical viewpoint on the effect of MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s rule on the culture of traditional China, as well as the unusual opening of women in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. ChangÃ¢â¬â¢s account is an inspiring one of courage, intelligence, love, loyalty, and sensitivity that is told in an objective manner without guilt or accusations. Though Brittain is now dead and cannot witness the success the memoirs, the impacts are still felt even today in, for instance, how her book has helped in shaping the consciousness of modern feminists. In a period of six years, the memoirs had sold over 120, 000 copies. The outbreak of World War II, however, meant that BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s pacifist philosophy became less popular. It was not until the late 1970s that the Virago, the feminist publisher reprinted Testament of Youth which was followed by a popular TV series brought BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s work to a bigger audience. The book up to today remains considerably influential 8 decades after its publication, and continues to inspire new generations. The book was able to convey the personal devastation that followed World War I, especially from the perspective of a young woman who experienced the wrath of war to the fullest. Many other concurrent accounts depicted women as victims who bore the devastating effect of world events, rather th an as the means of their own change. Her story is an empathetic one that gives the experiences of women a voice considering that many other female writers struggled to bring their accounts into the limelight. Problem as a way to recount past Using the problem as a way of recounting the past is that the story is prone to be relayed in a subjective manner that focuses more on the problem than on the solutions, and the historical aspects of the story. By using the problem approach method to highlight various past historical events we are expected to learn from may be one directional, in that, the author may only view matters that personally problematic to him/her. In these two memoirs, for instance, Brittain in the Testament of Youth focuses only on the plight of women during the First World War and consequently calls for the idealization of feminist ideas. In this line, the memoir gives us a one directional view of the problem in the war hence making it problematic to recount the past from a personal basis. Chang also focuses only on the problems of women in her memoirs hence; giving us a one directional approach to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural civilization, which is also subjective in nature. Conclusion These two memoirs present to us the various conditions the two writers went through that led to their writing of these memoirs. The memoirs present to us the story of these two writers in a narrative form that makes it interesting for one to read and consequently grasp the message. The memoirs present to us the significance of recounting the past using the problem approach, in that, individuals are able to identify with the stories and consequently comprehend their precepts. The problem method is however compounded with its shortcomings, though they are not big enough to warrant using this approach as ineffective. Through the memoirs, we are able to learn the Cultural Revolution that ushered it into the modern world. We also learn the plight of women during the First World War, and the effects of the war. The memoirs are, therefore, in the very essence significant in recounting the past as we build the future. Visit the following link to get professional History research paper help from our highly qualified writers: https://www./history-papers/history-research-paper.html.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Hippo Words Hippo Words Hippo Words By Maeve Maddox A reader writes: My office mates call me a hippocrite. When I found this misspelling on a chat site, I started wondering if there might be a connection between hypocrite and the hippo words n English. The prefix hypo is from Greek and means under. In most English words its pronounced with a long i as in hypodermic. The pronunciation of hypocrite is an exception. hypodermic: hypo + derma (skin) a needle that goes under the skin. hypothermic: hypo + therme (heat) body temperature under normal. hypoglycemia: hypo + glykis (sweet) + haima (blood) sugar in the blood under normal hypotenuse: hypo + teinein (to stretch the right angle stretches under Things start getting complicated with the under connection when we get to hypochondria and hypocrisy. In Late Latin hypochondria meant the abdomen, hypo+chondros cartilage of the breastbone. In the 17th century hypochondria came to mean depression or melancholy illness without cause. This usage reflected an ancient belief that melancholy originated in the hypchondria. Then, in the 19th century, hypochondria acquired its present meaning of any illness without a specific cause. hypocrisy: the crisy part of this word derives from a Greek word that meant to sift, to differentiate. The sense of sift evolved from to separate gradually to to answer and then to answer a fellow actor on the stage. From there it came to mean acting on the stage. Everyone knows that acting is pretending. Hypocrisy is pretending to be one kind of person when in fact youre another kind. A hypocrite is a pretender. The prefix hippo is from the Greek word for horse. hippopotamus: hippo + potamus, river river horse hippodrome: hippo + dromos, course a place to race horses The word hippogriff combines hippo with griffin. A griffin is a fabulous animal typically having head, forepart, and wings like those of an eagle but with visible usually erect ears, forelegs like the legs of an eagle, and body, hind legs, and tail like those of a lion. A hippogriff is a griffin with the hindquarters of a horse. Some other Hippos Augustine of Hippo: early Christian Father. He was bishop of Hippo in Algeria. The city there now is called Annaba. Hippocrates: the father of medicine, author of the Hippocratic Oath for doctors. picture of a griffin picture of a hippogriff text of the ancient Hippocratic Oath Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Exquisite Adjectives15 Types of DocumentsA Yes-and-No Answer About Hyphenating Phrases
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Reform of Human Resource Department in Ontario Public Services - Essay Example The report provides us with an insight that the human resource management can help in shaping the behavior of employee that is consistent with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for existence; purpose, mission and vision. The focus of this research was to shift from traditional HR to strategic HR. This shift from traditional to strategic human resource was to ensure the flexibility and innovation based on technology. Another focus of OPS was to focus on outsourcing that was to be limited only for those departments of the organization where the department needs motivated employees. Other departments in which the organization excels would be handled by the OPS. In this research paper the importance of human resource will be judged by conducting relevant analysis based on Ontario public services. The analysis is based on up-to-date data and models that would help to conclude regarding the progress of human resource management in Ontario public services. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW For an organiz ation to be successful and to respond to the challenges, the organization must bear high recruitment cost. This recruitment would help to accomplish the vision and mission and pursue the organizational excellence (Armstrong, 2009). For such purpose the OPS has developed a plan to focus on outsourcing which would help the OPS to reduce its recruitment cost and provide the organization with the best human resource available. This reduction in cost could be an opportunity for the OSP to use the capital in investing in other programs where the probability of return is greater than the others. According to the Equity theory, employees look for a balance between their input (hard work, loyalty, commitment, determination,... This essay provides relevant analysis of human resource management in Ontario public services and outlines the importance of human resource department in the OPS. The analysis is based on up-to-date data and models. The report provides us with an insight that the human resource management can help in shaping the behavior of employee that is consistent with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for existence; purpose, mission and vision. The shift from traditional to strategic human resource was made to ensure the flexibility and innovation based on technology. Another focus of OPS was to focus on outsourcing that was to be limited only for those departments of the organization where the department needs motivated employees. Other departments in which the organization excels would be handled by the OPS. In this essay the importance of human resource is judged by conducting relevant analysis based on Ontario public services. It could be concluded that OPS was successful in the implementation and change of HRM from traditional to strategic human resource. The shift from traditional to strategic HR is deemed successful by introducing the technology which reduced the efforts and time consumption in the organizations. OPS emphasized on the quality of human resource rather than the quantity of employees. Employees being the greatest resource of OPS, it had been given a special place in the public services. The employees are trained and developed to create competencies that would be helpful for the organizations in the future.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Bantam Soft Drinks - Assignment Example Furthermore, this can lead to disruption in production, loss of job skills and dramatic incur on cost of hiring new staffs. The four factors which states why employees leaves any specific firm like Bantam Soft Drinks are organizational commitment, work climate, employee motivation and communication. It is described as comparative strength of involvement and identification of an individual in a specific firm. Studies concluded that employees with high level of commitment are less likely to leave their organizations. According to Steers, the more level of commitment can lessen desire of termination for organization. Furthermore, it is believed that these exceedingly committed and dedicated employees are supposed to have strong desire at work, high intent to stay with the company and optimistic attitude towards employment. Moreover, Steers determined that employee turnover is inversely and expressively proportional to employee commitment. On the other hand, employees with less commitment level can perceive current job as opportunity to find better prospect in other organizations. In this present scenario on Bantam Soft Drinks, it can be proposed that this traditional soft drinks company is on low staff turnover. The continual rise of prices has increased the sign of lack of motiva tion and anxiety towards the work. This resulted rapid shift of employee turnover from low to high. Some of the employees fear that rapid upsurge of soft drinks prices may lead to employee reduction. Moreover, the indication of less enthusiasm and rise of anxiety has increased staff turnover of the soft drinks company by 5 percentages. The underlying credence of the study is that commitment can have positive impact on workforce retention and job performance. The working condition of an organization is vital for reduction of staff turnover. It appears that organization must introduce supportive working climate and learning environment where employees can work and learn. Research shows
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Writing a about "The Office" (us verison) - Research Paper Example Brown in response to an unsolicited repeat performance of a controversial, racially-themed comedy routine. It turns out that the session was held for everyone in the office, but truly, it was meant for Michael since he was the one who made the comments. Diversity is a concept that applies to all people in a particular environment, not just individuals who differ from the norm. It goes beyond just the differences to encompass the whole collective of people representing a group. Therefore, it also represents the similarities between people. There are a number of factors that can make up diversity Ã¢â¬â factors such as educational background, religion, union affiliation, seniority, physical ability, appearance, gender, and race. Some factors are organizational in nature; some are internal to a person, and some are external to a person. On its face, the diversity session that Mr. Brown tried to lead with Michael present was conducted very much of the surface level Ã¢â¬â only trying to address the racial insensitivity of MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy routine. Instead, it misses the rich framework of other factors that define diversity in the office setting. In fact, Mr. Brown dismisses DwightÃ¢â¬â¢s comment about homosexuality not bei ng a race addresses this point directly Ã¢â¬â sexual orientation is a facet of diversity that should be trained upon. Perhaps because, as Mr. Brown says, Ã¢â¬Å"we only have an hourÃ¢â¬ , he realizes the limitations of the scope placed on the diversity training session in terms of how much ground they can actually cover. There are a number of benefits of diversity, both for the individual as well as for the organization. At the individual level, increased diversity leads to perspective taking, intellectual engagement, and shared values with others within the group. At the organizational level, diversity can have a real impact on the mission of the organization by increasing creativity, system flexibility, and cooperation among employees. When Mr. Brown
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Background and future potential of electronic marketing Describe the background, current and future potential of e-marketing, e-business model, e-marketing process, and different types of e-marketing strategies, contemporary strategic e-marketing issues in Viet Nam / another country. Explain the critical impact of internet and how it changes the traditional marketing in the aspects of segmentation, targeting, differentiation, positioning, product, price, distribution, intergrated marketing communication and customer relationship management. Support your agrument with suitable examples. > Very simply put, e-marketing, which is also called as online or internet marketing, refers to the combination of old-age marketing principles and techniques via electronic media and over the Internet network. The terms e-marketing, e-business, e-marketing strategies and e-marketing process are frequently interchanged, and can often be considered synonymous. Traditionally, marketing has been around for a very long time. Marketing comes in many different forms and has been used in different ways throughout the history, but is really meant for one thing only. Marketing helps to increase the profitability of products or services. Since the day when humans first started trading whatever it was that they first traded, marketing was there. At the time, it was the stories traders used to convince others to trade. Marketing has come a long way since then; up until a few years ago marketing has all been done in the same basic method, but the Internet has changed everything dramatically. The ways that people do marketing and business have changed and improved year by year and now they have become a lot easier to deliver their stories, products or services and get marketing messages out there. E-Marketing consists of both direct response marketing as well as indirect marketing factors whilst using a wide range of technologies to get businesses to their customers connected. The Internet, actually, has brought billions of people from all walks of life together within the reach of any marketer. By doing so they can reach a wider marketplace which is still targeted for their particular product or service. The Internet has really changed the way many people do business and as it continues to evolve we will see even more changes in the way that e-business is being gained. This is true more than ever in the case of Vietnam. Given the fact that Vietnam has the 13th largest population on the earth and should come as no surprise that it has the very large number of internet users also. Vietnam have an estimated more than 30 million people online by the year of 2010  which account for 15% internet penetration rate. Those internet users spend over 50% of the leisure time online, which amounts to more than fifteen hours per person in Vietnam per week. Of these users, 10 million are users of social networking sites, and over 20 million are search engine users. Most notably, though, the value of online business transactions in Vietnam reached 20000 billion Viet Nam Dong last year, that is, 1 billion USD . Also, online commerce is now being more widely accepted by marketers as a legitimate and useful tool of spending advertising dollars. The online economic system for the country is coming. Maybe the only statistics more impressive than these quantities are their unparalleled growth rate. Since the year 1999, the number of internet users in Vietnam has increased by over 15000% from less than 200 thousand users to 30 million . The use of the internet in some of the largest cities such as Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi has even exceeded 50%. The use of social networking sites has also been expanding much more rapidly than expected, with the actual number of users exceeding predictions by over 10 million people. Even more importantly, over the past year the number of online business transactions grew by 900% while the value of these transactions more than doubled . Through these facts and figures, while intriguing in their own right, are much more crucial insofar as they hint at Vietnams tremendous potential for growth. Despite 30 million people who currently use the internet in Vietnam, still 56 million people who are not yet online, and while it is naive to think that every single person in Vietnam will inevitably be an internet user, if internet penetration in Vietnam were to reach levels similar to those of America which a certainly obtainable goal of around 75%, this would be an addition of over 70 million users to the web. To these new users, many would be drawn to online marketing and business, further expanding an already vibrant and robust market. Most importantly, those new users in Vietnam could expand the field of potential customers which can be reached through careful marketing strategies. As one of the fastest growing economies in the world despite the global financial crisis, Vietnams real GDP is expected to grow another 30% by the year 2015 , bringing even more disposable income to the rapidly increasing number of internet users in Vietnam, which is a prospect for the future potential of e-marketing, e-business model, e-marketing process and different types of e-marketing strategies. Does it make any sense to not reach out to this through e-marketing and e-business? By learning to effectively employ Vietnamese search engines, being culturally sensitive in how you target a foreign audience, and learning to navigate the language barrier, a relatively modest investment of time and effort may pay dividends later. By simply translating the homepage on the website into English, for example, to encourage people to conduct business with the product or service in English, your page will be able to appear in Vietnamese search engines. With Vietnams rapidly expanding econom y and internet user base, it only makes sense to venture forth into Vietnamese e-marketing. Besides these things, issues also exist. The contemporary strategic e-marketing issues, however, are series of constraints that hinder the performance of e-marketing in Vietnam. These problems include the following: Technology: Online marketing requires Vietnamese customers to use modern technologies rather than traditional media; Cyber crime: Vietnamese does not have habit of purchasing online. Many customers are hesitant to buy items via the internet because they do not know whether their personal information will remain private or not; Quality: The concern that customers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase, which leads to the solution that many online merchants have attempted to share this concern by investing in and building strong brands (for example: Amazon.com, eBay, Nganluong.vn, Chodientu.vn, etc), and by leveraging their feedback rating systems as well as e-commerce bonding solutions. All of those are attempts to assure customers that their transactions will be free of scams because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services. In addition to this, the major online payment merchanisms (credit cards, for instance) have also provided back-end buyer protections systems to address problems if they actually do occur. Xenophilia: The preference for foreign products always is a problem. Because of the development process of Vietnam and our inability to produce most high quality goods, specially technologically sophisticated products, Vietnamese customers tend to prefer buying from the more industrialized countries. This makes the development process of Vietnamese industries and commercial life of the people more impoverished. Developing countries as vietnam constitute over 70% of the worlds population, but only contribute about 12% of the worlds industrial production that often boost e-marketing in these economies. Why should this be the case, and who is to be blamed for the structural discrepancy and imbalance? What actions could Vietnam adopt to accelerate the pace of industrialization and the development in order to boost the tempo of e-marketing? It is generally felt that Vietnam locally-made goods are only for the poor, uneducated and those who are not fashionable, whilst the consumption of i mported goods and services is taken as a status symbol for the elite and affluent even when foreign products are of less quality when compared to similar Vietnamese high quality brands. This situation makes the growth of e-marketing and satisfaction of customers in Vietnam locally difficult; High cost of production: Internet marketing has suffered in most developing countries like Vietnam because virtually all production techniques are imported from the developed countries. The cost of acquiring equipments and other inputs used for production in Vietnam to boost e-marketing sometimes extremely difficult to buy. How can marketers resolve these problems? They certainly must have proper e-marketing strategies: The vital significance of developing an effective e-marketing strategy is indicated by Michael Porter (2001) who has said: The key question is not whether to deploy Internet technology, companies have no choice if they want to stay competitive, but how to deploy it.  An e-marketing strategy is needed to provide consistent direction for any organizations e-marketing activities that integrates with its other marketing activities and supports the overall objectives of the business. For most companies, the first attacks into online marketing is not the result of a well-defined, integrated e-strategy but rather a response to competitors activities and customers need. After establishing a site for a year or so, marketing staffs and senior managers in a company may question its efficiency. That is often the point where the need for a logical e- marketing strategy becomes apparent. As consequence, the starting point is when a company which has an existing site and it is reviewing the current site and its efficiency with a view to future improvements. There is no evidence to suggest that the approach to developing and implementing a strategy should be importantly different for e-marketing. Establish frameworks for corporated strategy development or strategic marketing planning, hence, should still be followed. Those frameworks provided a coherent continuation to follow which makes sure inclusion of all main activities of strategy development. It could be argued, neve rtheless, that with online marketing there is an even greater need for a highly responsive strategy process model where speedy reaction may occur to events in the market. In 2002, the economist Chaffey noted that e-business and e-marketing tend to use a three-stage model strategy . They are: Strategic analysis: Continuous scanning of the micro and macro-environment of an organization which is required with particular emphases on the changing needs of the customers, actions and business models of competitor and opportunities afforded by new modern technologies.  Strategic objectives: Companies must have a clear vision that if digital media will accompaniment or alter other media and their capacity for change . Clear objectives should be set and in particular goals for the online revenue contribution needed to be defined. Strategy implementation: Devising and executing tactics should be set to achieve strategic goals. This includes relaunching a website, opening promotive campaigns associated to the site and monitoring the efficiency of the site . The above three-stage strategy mentioned to the effectiveness of the website in strategic management. Back to this subject, we can easily find out the crucial impact of the Internet and how it changes the traditional marketing in the aspects of segmentation, targeting, differentiation, positioning, product, price, distribution, intergrated marketing communication and customer relationship management. An e-marketing planning programme has 2 sides. The first is the part devoted to individual customers. The second is the business to business component. E-commerce programmes, advertising, sales online support and customer service are all factors of an online marketing programme. Parallel companies compete against one another whilst being only a click of the mouse away. In other words, with the internet the purchaser is able to locate plentiful sellers which sell similar merchandise, similar prices and similar offers in only a short time period. Since more and more people are comfortable with the internet, the marketing plans is likely to continue to educe soon in coming years. During the last decade, the use of the internet has exploded radically in both the consumer and business-to-business markets. Though experts still argue the future of the internet, nobody doubts it is having a great impact on how business is taking place in the 21st century. Here are details about the internet that highlight its extreme growth and presence in trends of the society: The most common products that customers search online and purchase at the store or outlet are car, computer, computer hardware, travel, electronics, books, music, sporting goods and clothing; In 2004, 10% of business-to-business advertising dollars were spent online, the total amount spent was 8.7 billion USD over the world; About 54% email users have responded to an e-mail advertisement, almost half purchased an item; Internet retail sales account for almost 2.5% of all retail global sales . Many companies use the internet for their every business activity such as taking orders, sales programs, service departments, inventory control, communications plans, and production schedulingThe change from traditional communication channels to the internet occurred so quickly today. Marketers and consumers are among the first can get profits from the internet. Nowadays in marketplace, it is a trend to realize that the internet, namely websites, is becoming the communication tool of choice for many business-to-business companies. The internet provides opportunities for segmentation, targeting, differentiation, positioning, product, price, distribution, intergrated marketing communication and customer relationship management. How about the future of the e-marketing, e-business and e-commerce? E-commerce has grown by high jumps and continues to set new horizon line every year. As huge as Google is, it was created in 1998. Google how far have come to the world. Since the Internet continues to grow, the future potential of e-marketing is a much discussed subject. E-marketing is now rather messy but quickly in the near future remnants of the old, such as banner ads and email marketing, are clearly one their way out. In conclusion, the impact of the internet on marketing and industries has been clearly noted in todays world. The presence of the internet and e-commerce is so sweeping that the various applications of hi-tec technology are now crucial elements of a fully integrated marketing communications programme. In other words, the internet opens new horizon for todays marketing world. > Total word count: 2273 (Ã ± 10%)